AUDIO -V I 8 UAL
TECH N I Q U E S
From the collection of the
San Francisco, California
AUDIO-VISUAL TECHNIQUES FOR
ENRICHMENT OF THE CURRICULUM
For Enricnment oi
ANNA CURTIS CHANDLER, EJ. D.
IRENE F. CYPHER, PL D.
NOBLE AND NOBLE, Putlisliers, Inc., New York
COPYRIGHT, 1948, BY NOBLE AND NOBLE, PUBLISHERS, INC
MANUFACTURED IN THE U.S.A.
I. AUDIO-VISUAL ENRICHMENT 3
II. AIDS IN WAR AND PEACE 13
III. TYPICAL CLASSROOM AIDS IQ
IV. RADIO AND TELEVISION 49
EXAMPLE OF PROGRAM 53
V. DRAMATIC PRESENTATIONS 67
VI. TREASURE TRIPS 75
VII. THREE-DIMENSIONAL AIDS AND
RE ALIA 85
VIII. HOME- AND SCHOOL-MADE AIDS 97
IX. ENRICHMENT OF SOCIAL STUDIES II3
X. UNDERSTANDING WORLD CULTURE 123
EXAMPLE OF SCHEDULE 125
EXAMPLES OF PROGRAMS 1 30
XI. ENRICHMENT OF LANGUAGE ARTS 137
EXAMPLE OF PROGRAM 142
XII. ENRICHMENT OF THE SCIENCES 169
EXAMPLES OF PROGRAMS 178
XIII. PLANNING THE AUDIO-VISUAL
XIV. CREATIVE ACHIEVEMENTS 203
XV. TEACHER EDUCATION 213
XVI. WHERE TO OBTAIN HELP 219
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THIS BOOK is a real contribution to modern education,
both in its theory, and in its practice. . .
The authors' conception of audio-visual enrichment is not
a narrow-minded attitude, but "entails a grasp of the inter-
relationship of various areas in the curriculum and the care-
ful selection of these aids vs^hich are so potent in enriching
This broad meaning of audio-visual enrichment does not
restrict itself to elementary and secondary schools, but it is
also good for pre-school education as well as for adult edu-
cation beyond secondary institutions, regardless of the cur-
riculum. As the authors say, "Audio-visual enrichment means
the realization that one area cannot be taught alone, that this
integration and enrichment must cause the learning experi-
ence to become vital, human, sensory, through related areas."
All these areas will appeal to children, youths, and adults
on the basis which Dr. Thomas M. Balliet (former Dean of
the N.Y.U. School of Pedagogy) called sensory-motor train-
ing, illustrating the well-known principle that all impressions
( stimuli ) strive for expressions ( doings ) , and lead to reflec-
tive and creative thinking.
According to the authors, the term "audio-visual aids" in-
cludes not only the motion picture and the lantern slide, but
a rich store of all materials for educational stimuli from A
to Z, such as anaglyphs, aquaria, blackboard-chalk, bulletin
boards, cartoons, charts, clubs, comics, costumes, creative
achievements, dancing, dioramas, demonstrations, discus-
sions, dolls, dramatics, field trips, filmstrips or filmslides, flat
pictures, furniture, graphs, illustrated talks, kodachrome
slides, live animals and plants, maps, miniature stage-sets,
modeled figures, murals, nature specimens, objects, photo-
graphs, pictures (plain and colored), radio, relics, sandbox
scenes, school "movies," stamps, stereographs, story-telling,
tableaux, television, terraria, vectographs, and visits to the
Our authors claim that children from their first birth to
their "second birth" ( at the age of 14 years ) , youths from 14
to 21 years, and adults from 21 years up should be trained
and educated as a whole by means of all available audio-
visual and other sensory-motor aids, designated for the si-
multaneous development of hand, heart and head; and all
leading to a wise world in the near or distant future, since "a
nation without vision must perish," to use the Biblical ex-
In other words, the authors are trying by their multiferous
audio-visual aids to avoid that education which was narrow
and one-sided, exercising and developing certain abilities
and human attributes at the expense of the rest. The avowed
aim of the writers of this book is to point the way to the best
possible means of education for World Citizenship.
The practical side of this book is still more interesting,
and its merits include almost all the good hints offered by
great educators to help the students learn their lessons more
economically and efficiently, beginning with Comenius' Orbis
Pictus up to the most recent book on visual aids published
This book is full of practical examples of the uses of specific
aids, and advice on where to obtain help in acquiring audio-
visual materials, plus a careful and useful glossary. The
aiuthors offer, also, six practical points to bear in mind in
selecting and using audio- visual aids; fourteen values of
audio- visual aids when eflFectively used in teaching; and five
dangers to avoid in using audio- visual aids.
This book should be in the hands not only of good teachers
in all grades from kindergarten to university, but also should
be consulted by all others who are interested in helping to
develop a modern, ideal and useful American culture and
Paul R. Radosavljevich,
Professor Emeritus of Experimental Education.
New York University School of Education
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. The authors wish to acknowledge
their indebtedness to the following: The Professors of New York
University who have been especially helpful in this field: Dan W.
Dodson, John Carr DuflF, Hughes Mearns, Henri C. Olinger; and
especially to Daniel C. Knowlton and Paul R. Radosavljevich.
The aid given by the following institutions is also deeply appreci-
ated: The American Museum of Natural History, the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, the Museum of the City of New York, Hunter Col-
lege and Hunter College Elementary School of the City of New
York, the Board of Education of the City of New York, the Franklin
Institute of Philadelphia, the Cathedral of St. John the Divine of
New York City; the United States Navy Developing Center.
The authors value the assistance of the following: Dr. Grace
Fisher Ramsey, Curator of School Relations, the American Museum
of Natural History; Dr. George N. Shuster, President of Hunter
College; Dr. Charles Russell, Chairman, Dept. of Education, the
American Museum of Natural History; Prof. Philip R. V. Curoe,
Chairman of the Dept. of Education, and Dr. Frank T. Wilson,
Coordinator, Hunter College; Dr. Florence Brumbaugh, Principal
of Hunter College Elementary School, and the Audio- Visual Par-
ent Committee of that school; George Colclough of Roelif Jansen
Central School; Beatrice Frederiksen of Roosevelt School, Hyde
Park, N. Y.; Anna M. Montgomery, Ellen Kerr, Michael J. Kenny
and Julius Postal, all of the American Museum of Natural His-
tory; Arnold Spitz of the. Franklin Institute; George Schiebler of
the Board of Education of the City of New York; Charlotte Chan-
dler Wells; Teresa Bergamo Zazzali; and Roy E. Stryker of the
Standard Oil Company.
PICTURE CREDITS. The authors wish to express their
appreciation and gratitude to the many institutions and corpora-
tions which provided pictures for inclusion in this book. They
wish to thank in particular the following:
All The Children, publication of the New York City Board of
Education, for the photographs on pages 9, 15, 18, 22, 45, 48, 71,
78, 103, 105, 109, 110, 112, 168, 190, 202, 204 and 212.
American Optical Company for the photograph appearing on
The American Museum of Natural History for the photographs
on pages 2, 84, 93, 122, 125, 195, 206, and the frontispiece.
Ampro Corporation for the photograph on page 37.
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company for the photograph appear-
ing on page 29.
Bell and Howell Company for the photographs on pages 96 and
British Information Services for the photographs on pages 145
Columbia Broadcasting System for the photograph on page 53.
Don Lee Television System for the photographs on pages 140
The Franklin Institute and Gladys MuUer for the photographs on
pages 178 and 183.
Grace Line for the photograph on page 133.
Hunter College Elementary School for the photographs on pages
7, 90 and 91.
The Jam Handy Organization for the photograph appearing on
The keystone View Company for the photograph on page 35.
The Metropohtan Museum of Art for the photographs on pages
69, 80, 83, 116, 136 and 153.
The Museum of the City of New York for the photographs on
pages 107 and 119.
The New York World-Telegram and Al Aumuller for the photo-
graph on page 74.
Pan American Airways System for the photograph on page 130.
Standard Oil Company of New Jersey for the photographs on
pages 41, 43, 171, and 218.
Underwood and Underwood for the photograph appearing on
United Artists for the scenes from "Henry V" on pages 142, 158
United Nations Department of PubUc Information for the photo-
graph appearing on page 76.
The United States Navy for the photograph on page 12.
Weber Costello Company for the photograph on page 25.
I. AudioA^isual Enricnment
VISUAL AIDS and audio- visual aids are familiar terms in
the realm of education. For some years they have been widely
used, enthusiastically discussed and evaluated. Long before
World War II these aids were used by museums in integrated
programs. They early recognized the educational possibilities
of flat pictures, slides, stereographs, motion pictures and dio-
ramas as incentives to the understanding and enjoyment
of "realia"— their gallery treasures. Schools recognized their
value, also, but in 1936 only four percent were equipped
with projectors, and four years later, in 1940, not more than
ten percent. Although in recent years the appropriation for
"visual instruction" in schools has, in many cities, been in-
creased, more funds are needed for proper school use of these
A great impetus in the use of these teaching tools came
through «their extensive and intensive use in World War II for
speedy and effective training of men and women in both mili-
tary and industrial skills. With the war over, many used pro-
jectors were sold at reduced prices. Many films prepared by
our Government became available. More schools are able to
use this significant method of teaching. With our naval, mili-
tary, and industrial centers realizing the potency of this
teaching method, our educators will understand more than
ever before how necessary these aids are in the education of
our boys and girls in democracy and world-understanding.
They will realize, also, how necessary these audio-visual
aids are in the integration of the various areas of the curriculum
—Social Studies, Language Arts, the Sciences, Art, Music,
Long ago educators realized the value of visual enrichment,
not as a separate subject, or a teaching project, but as an
eflFective, vital, teaching method, providing for the presenta-
tion of knowledge through the seeing experience. Audio-visual
enrichment is not entertainment, but a vital part of the cur-
Today, with the sound motion picture, the radio, and the
recordings which now accompany many of the filmstrips,
the hearing experience combines with the seeing, and audio-
visual impressions result in still more meaningful teaching and
functional learning. Other senses are also important in learn-
ing, especially that of touch, the sense earliest aroused. In
some learning situations the sense of smell and that of taste
are eflFective, also. So, we may speak of certain combinations
of these aids as multi-sensory rather than audio- visual aids.
These are especially meaningful to young children.
What are these aids which contribute to happy and eflFective
learning through the enrichment and integration of the vari-
ous areas in the curriculum? Which present knowledge
through the eyes and the ears? They include charts, maps,
books, flat pictures, slides, filmstrips, motion pictures, radio,
television, stereographs, models, dioramas, realia, recordings,
phonograph records, lectures, story-hours, demonstrations,
tableaux and dramatics.
SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF AIDS. The
mere showing of these aids does not mean effective audio-
visual enrichment. That entails a grasp of the interrelation-
ship of various areas in the curriculum and careful and intelli-
gent selection of these aids which are so potent in enriching
them. Audio- visual enrichment means the realization that one
area cannot be taught alone, that this integration and enrich-
ment must cause the learning experience to become vital,
human, sensory, through related areas. The challenge for
more care and deeper understanding in the selection of these
aids, for quality, authenticity and vividness of appeal, is in-
creasing with the greater demands for this effective method
which produces more learning in less time— and happy learn-
Not only quality, authenticity, fitness and vividness of ap-
peal in relation to the content of the curriculum area or areas
are important in the selection of these aids, but an understand-
ing of their relative advantages in different teaching situa-
tions. This relative advantage of each aid and of combinations
of aids must be considered in connection with each teaching
and learning situation.
The teacher herself, and under her guidance, the teacher-
in-training or pupil, should understand how to evaluate
the authenticity, quality and relationship of these concrete
teaching aids, and the advantage of each type or com-
bination. She may feel that appeal to the eye is sufficient
in a given learning situation or she may decide that appeal
to the ear is also needed for the best presentation of
her subject matter. Again, after careful evaluation of the
various aids available, she may be convinced that three-
dimensional objects, models and dioramas, or three-dimen-
sional pictures— stereographs— will make a more concrete
and realistic impression upon the children since they
stimulate the sense of touch which is strong in everyone, espe-
cially in children. Today, polaroid filters make it possible to
project three-dimensional pictures in color. These three-
dimensional visual aids enable boys and girls to feel more
completely the reality of the experience and actually to partici-
pate in it. Or, she may feel that the projection of slides com-
bined with the motion picture will make the learning situation
more vital. In each case, the choice of audio-visual aids must
be suited to the purpose of the lesson.
HAPPY LEARNING IN RELATED AREAS. Since
effective learning is secured only through effective teach-
ing, that method or those methods of teaching should
be used which bring to the child most eflFectively and
economically the desired results. An important outcome is a
joyous attitude towards learning as well as the ability to ex-
perience the content in learning with resultant experiences
which help him develop into a happy, active individual, able
to live with himself and with society. Audio-visual enrichment
of the curriculum as a teaching method stimulates thinking,
quickens creative imagination, helps the child become ori-
ented to the material which is presented to him. It calls forth
spontaneous, enthusiastic and creative responses from boys
and girls who are eager to see, to hear, to touch, to experience,
who have great capacity for wonder and discovery, and for
free and joyous expression. Integrated, enriched programs
made possible by audio-visual aids, change the curriculum
from stereotyped, formal, verbal learning in unrelated areas
to vital and happy learning in related areas with provision for
A student-teacher showing color prints to children— a visual experi-
ence stimulating an appreciation of art and creative expression.
individual thinking, feeling and doing in life-like situations
and dynamic experiences.
Audio-visual aids, like art, music, dramatics and the dance,
are a common language, a common denominator among all
people. They help develop and increase personal understand-
ing and appreciation of the areas of learning which they hu-
manize and enrich. They develop a better understanding of
their relationship and of the interrelationship of all countries
in the world today.
Technical advance in the production of audio-visual aids
has been great, fine equipment is ready, information for its
use is at hand. The specific challenge is the school budget.
How ideal the situation would be if each school might have
suflBcient appropriation for an audio-visual room with ade-
quate equipment, and a teacher trained in the selection and
use of these aids, who would be in charge of this work without
the burden of other teaching duties. For the success of this
enrichment depends largely upon an understanding of what
to use and how and when to use it. Such a person would con-
trol and direct the successful distribution of these aids in the
various classrooms at the time they are needed, for only thus
can they be effective in making the various areas vital and
There are educational, governmental, and commercial
sources, where a helping hand is available in the selecting of
these aids. Much material for school use can be procured at
no expense; much at special rates. For many children trips to
Museums contain many awe-inspiring evidences of life long ago,
such as this huge skeleton of a carnivorous dinosaur.
museums and libraries, historical monuments, factories, botan-
ical gardens, shops, or dairies, with their original material in
proper settings, make it possible for the learning situation
to be the real experience.
WHAT TO KEEP IN MIND
I. VALUE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS— WHEN EFFECTIVELY
USED IN TEACHING
1. Lessen major weakness of verbalism.
2. Humanize and vitalize subject matter.
3. Provide interesting approach to new topics and give correct
4. Provide happy learning.
5. Economize time in learning.
6. Increase ability of retention.
7. Aid in developing keen observation.
8. Supply concrete material needed.
9. Stimulate initiative of pupils in making materials.
10. Stimulate creative responses in pupils.
11. Provide the best substitute for real experience.
12. Stimulate interest and aid in self-expression.
13. Enrich and clarify instruction.
14. Help in orienting the child to the world in which he lives.
KEEP IN MIND
II. POINTS TO BEAR IN MIND WHEN SELECTING AND
USING AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS
1. Audio-visual teaching aids must have some direct relation
to lesson (they must not be mere entertainment).
2. Audio-visual aids should be so selected as to supplement
and enrich various areas in the curriculum.
3. Audio-visual aids should be adapted to grade level.
4. Audio-visual aids should be selected, combined and used in
a way which vdll be most effective for a particular lesson.
5. Audio-visual aids are not a separate subject but a vital teach-
6. Preview all types of audio-visual materials before using in
III. DANGERS TO AVOID IN USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS
1. Material unsuited to a particular teaching situation.
2. Too much material used at one time.
3. Use of materials poor in quality.
4. Use of materials unsuited to child's mental level.
5. Failure to integrate the various aids to the teaching situa-
tion or to the curriculum.
II. Aids in War and Peac
DURING WORLD WAR II, audio-visual aids, or, as they
were called in the armed forces, "Training Aids," were
vital in eflFective and speedy training of men and women in
military and industrial knowledges and skills. Never before
did a war require so much learning and training— training of
soldiers, sailors, aviators, marines, wacs, waves, spars and
workers in industrial units. These aids saved time in our train-
ing camps, producing the desired results in the most eflFective
and economical way. Pictures of war activities and techniques
could be shown to classes of all sizes, providing the equipment
and room facilities were adequate, so that all might see and
hear to the best advantage.
Many sound motion pictures, filmstrips, both silent and
with recordings, glass and kodachrome slides, stereographs,
charts, maps, posters, photographs, models— both solid, cuta-
way, and with movable parts— were prepared by experts for
our Government. These proved an outstanding success in the
rapid and successful training of men in the armed forces and
civilian war- workers.
These Training Aids were helpful in orientation, in better
understanding of the causes of the war, in the realization of
the close relationship of civilian war-workers to those in the
armed forces. They helped ground, sea, and air troops
understand the terrain of various combat areas. They were
vital in teaching how to give first aid to sick and wounded
comrades. They swiftly and eflFectively trained the men to
AIDS IN WAR
recognize instantly enemy aircraft and taught skills in operat-
ing complicated machinery. They built up morale by inspiring
confidence in ability to "carry on" in various combat areas. In
addition, they were indispensable in training personnel for
mass production, since they enabled the trainees to feel a real-
istic and actual participation.
AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS IN PEACE. Teachers will read-
ily appreciate that these training aids and audio-visual tech-
niques, which were so effective in wartime, are equally effec-
tive in peacetime education.
Today we are discussing peace in world terms. Time and
distance, the greatest barriers to an understanding of various
peoples, can be bridged by this effective method. Like a magic
carpet, audio- visual aids can take our boys and girls to remote
corners of the earth— or bring the world to the classroom. They
can make possible a visit to the very homes of our near and far
neighbors, and cover more ground in a shorter period of time
than can be traversed by any other kind of transportation,
even our swiftest airplanes. The better our boys and girls, for
whose happiness in the world of tomorrow hosts of soldiers
have fought and died, understand the people of other coun-
tries, their culture and ideals, the more likely it is that they
will be able to live together in peace.
PROMOTE WORLD UNITY. Visual, audio, and audio-
visual programs whether on the air, or in classrooms and
auditoriums, will no longer be called the "Americana Series,"
fostering Americanism alone, but rather "The World of To-
day Series/' furthering World unity. Ideals of democracy,
knowledge of, and pride in, the builders of our democracy and
their achievements both yesterday and today will be pre-
sented to our boys and girls, in connection with ideals and
A bulletin board can be used effectively to display graphically the
common interests of diverse nations, and the blending of these into
AIDS IN WAR
achievements of other countries and their leaders. The impor-
tance of common languages, similar interests, desires and
goals cannot be overemphasized. Audio- visual aids will help
bring full realization of the fact that we are all human individ-
uals belonging to one world, preparing for a lasting peace.
THERAPEUTIC VALUE. These "common denominators"
—art, music, the dance, dramatics, audio-visual aids— have an-
other important function in peacetime education. They have
a therapeutic value which must not be underestimated or
neglected. Programs enriched by audio-visual aids will help
relieve the tension of the troubled days so recently over, pro-
viding a healing power. We all know the potency of music in
healing, arousing and inspiring; the power of color to help the
mentally ill; of pictures to bring mental relaxation, comfort
and inspiration. We are convinced in school education, as in
the education of the armed forces, that audio- visual aids in-
duce greater interest, and happier, more effective learning
and longer remembering in less time.
Universal adoption of this effective and happy way of teach-
ing and learning, already used before and during the war in
many of our educational institutions and widely developed
by educational specialists in many branches of the armed
forces, will make our schools dynamic centers of community
life, will orient our boys and girls for world citizenship. If
these learning and training tools have been so potent in bring-
ing victory to the world, they will be equally effective in ban-
ishing the ignorance, misunderstanding, greed, and hate
which hinder a universal peace. Boards of education, associa-
tions of parent teachers, mothers' clubs, museums, libraries,
religious, governmental and commercial organizations vs^ill
recognize this, and be generous in their assistance with funds,
gifts and loans for the schools.
III. I ypical Classroom Aids
IT IS UNFORTUNATE that to many the term "visual or
audio-visual aids" today still means principally the motion
picture and the lantern slide. For a true picture of what con-
stitutes audio-visual aids it would be well to take a census of
all the teaching aids and materials which might justifiably be
included in this category.
BLACKBOARD AND CHALK. One of the first and old-
est of the visual aids, one which is still in use today, is a piece
of chalk and a blackboard. This combination is an ever-effec-
tive one, and no schoolroom should be without it. There are
times when the presentation of any subject can be most effec-
tively achieved by means of a "chalk talk" or blackboard dem-
onstration. Both teacher and student should use this medium,
and students should be encouraged to go to the blackboard
and illustrate their presentation of lesson assignments by
means of writing or drawing on the blackboard.
BULLETIN BOARDS. From blackboard to bulletin board
is a natural transition. This board may be a single piece of
homosote or heavy cardboard, framed and hung in a class-
room, or it may be a large board or series of boards for school
corridor, Hbrary, study rooms or school museum. Whatever
its size, it affords an opportunity to display pictures, charts,
maps, notices, specimens, newspaper clippings and all types
of materials which it may be desirable to display in the course
of school programs. Material displayed on a bulletin board
naturally attracts attention. Therefore, great care should be
used in selecting items for posting on this board. An attractive
arrangement of the items thus posted is also a factor in catch-
ing the eye and holding the interest of the observer.
BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS. Illustrated textbooks and
books of any nature included in the learning experience of
the child should then be examined. If a school program is to
be effective, it is highly important that illustrations, particu-
larly those in the textbooks used, be of a high standard. Many
an otherw^ise good text may be totally inadequate to meet stu-
dents* needs because of poor or badly chosen illustrations.
Those entrusted with the adoption of texts should keep this
point in mind when selecting textbooks. The school librarian
should be consulted in this matter, for her training and experi-
ence in the actual utilization of books gives her an insight into
what appeals and what has meaning to children. Teachers,
supervisors, .principals and parents should all insist that the
illustrations in books of every type be selected with as great
care as the textual matter. It is through illustrations that the
reader *s attention is focused upon certain facts. Therefore, the
pictures which illustrate and elaborate textual content should
present a true and meaningful concept. Better illustrations
mean better visual education.
FLAT PICTURES. No matter how well illustrated the text-
book in use may be, every teacher finds it helpful to have
additional pictorial material on hand to enrich a lesson. Beau-
tiful color reproductions of works of art, peoples and costumes
of other lands, famous places in other parts of the world, all
help to make the world around him live for the student. Good
reproductions in black and white are also extra aids to the
enrichment and vitalization of lessons.
The question as to whether black and white pictures or col-
ored pictures are to be preferred, is practically impossible to
answer positively and finally. In general, it might be said that
colored pictures present objects and things as they are and,
therefore, give a truer likeness. This is true if the color process
by which the picture is made is satisfactory, and the color
tones are faithful to the original. If the colors are not true to
life, it might be better to have good black and white reproduc-
tions. In scientific and technical illustrations and diagrams it is
often better to have black and white pictures, for details and
lines are more distinctly and clearly shown.
A good collection of flat pictures should be available to
every teacher. It is a good practice to have a general reference
collection for the school, one on which each teacher may draw,
and also for each teacher to have a special collection of her
own, particularly pertinent to her own subject or class needs.
The school collection may contain pictures of both general
and specific nature, collections of reproductions of master-
pieces, and special posters and prints. The class collection may
be made up of pictures from magazines and newspapers, art
work of students, photographs, posters, postal cards, advertis-
ing brochures, etc. These pictures should all be mounted, or
kept in cellophane or manila envelopes for protection. They
should also be filed so that they are accessible when needed.
CARTOONS AND COMICS. The cartoon is a unique
pictorial medium which has long had a visual appeal and
which has assumed even greater importance in the last few
years. If a cartoon is well-drawn, the work of a clever artist
who can graphically tell his story in picture form, it is a visual
Students find pleasure and profit in preparing their own cartoons
to enliven subjects being studied.
aid which is unique, easily understandable and appealing. The
cartoon has had a very potent effect in politics, and students
of economics and history realize the power which it can wield.
There is a definite place for the cartoon in the list of effective
visual aids for classroom use.
When the cartoon is reduced to the level of the slightly
ludicrous or is poorly drawn, it loses its effectiveness. Many
so-called "comic strips'' and books of comics have become
exceedingly popular with boys and girls. The appeal of this
type of material lies, of course, in the universal attraction
which pictures hold for young and old alike. Unfortunately,
many of these comics are neither well-drawn nor is the subject
matter well-chosen. Those who are responsible for them have
had commercial returns in mind rather than educational value.
There is no valid reason why this type of pictorial presentation
could not be utilized for teaching purposes if more care were
given to the production of worthwhile picture stories.
It may be that if less emphasis were placed on the designa-
tion "comics," and more on the connotation "cartoon," this
pictorial medium would better serve educational purposes.
The dictionary definition of cartoon, "a picture especially in-
tended to affect public opinion as to some matter or person,"
should be one criterion to keep in mind when selecting mate-
rial of this type. A teacher does not deliberately select poorly
drawn or inferior color prints for use in the art class. So with
cartoons, careful selection should be the determining factor
when including them with other visual aids. If well-drawn
and thoughtfully prepared, they may be a vital, pictorial me-
dium for the presentation of many different subjects.
MAPS, GLOBES, CHARTS AND GRAPHS. Today, the
world is "map conscious" to a degree never before known to
teacher and student. It is vitally important that every teacher
have available a good collection of aids to help bring this
world of ours clearly within the focus of understanding of her
pupils. In order to accomplish this, she should have several
types of maps in her collection. No one map or type of map is
adequate to do the complete work of teaching all the geo-
graphic concepts necessary to an understanding of our mod-
ern world. The school collection should contain good political
maps, physical maps, world maps, special area maps, Mer-
cator projection maps, polar-centered projection maps, old
maps and pictorial and cartoon maps. As special needs or
problems arise, it should be possible for teacher and student
to bring to the classroom the particular type of map which is
designed to assist in clarifying this situation. Pictorial and
cartoon maps will frequently be found helpful in humanizing
The same care and judgment should be used in selecting
maps as are used in selecting flat pictures. A map is a picture
of the world or some portion of the world. The map pictures
selected for any lesson should be those best adapted to meet
the need of the student at the moment at which they are used.
Many teachers prefer using a variety of maps ( political map,
ancient map, modern map, etc. ) so that a complete story may
be told. This is very good when the question under consider-
ation involves exploration and changing world frontiers.
The picture conveyed by a map will always be more com-
plete if a globe is used in conjunction with the map. Globes
are needed to keep before the student the picture of the world
as it is; globes bring the world itself into the classroom for
interpretation and consideration. As with maps, there are dif-
Globes and maps, used in conjunction with each other, give stu-
dents a better understanding of geography.
ferent types of globes: political, physical, desk model, floor
model, etc. It is advisable to have several diflPerent types of
globes in the school collection.
Charts and graphs are aids which belong in the classifica-
tion with maps and globes. Charts, particularly those showing
time lines and historical sequences, help to visualize historical
development. Diagrammatic charts, such as those illustrating
the structure of governments or community organization, and
picture graphs all aid in bringing before students' eyes a pic-
ture of the world and the things upon it.
DIORAMAS. There is available today a visual aid which
originated in the museums of the United States and which is
only just beginning to be used effectively in the classrooms.
It is the diorama. The term "diorama** is derived from the
Greek and means "to see through." The diorama itself may be
defined as: "The miniature, three-dimensional group consist-
ing of small modeled and colored figures and specimens, with
accessories, in an appropriate setting, and in most instances
artificially lighted. The scale and size of the group is variable;
there is no standard shape; there is no limitation as to subject
matter, which may be realistic or imaginative according to
what the creator of the group wishes to portray." *
Forerunners of the diorama are to be found in the religious
crib, displayed at Christmas time, in small carved stage sets
* Defined by Cypher, LF., "The Development of the Diorama in the Museums
of the United States." New York: New York University, 1942, Ph.D. Thesis.
and models, in panoramas, and in the natural habitat groups
found in museums. The diorama, or small group, is an inexpen-
sive, practical way of bringing the world of reality and of im-
agination into the classroom.
As the average diorama for classroom use is usually about
12 inches high by 24 inches long by 12 inches deep, it will
easily fit on a teacher *s desk or on a window-sill, a table or a
shelf in the average classroom. Small-scale dimensions have
not proved a barrier to its effectiveness. And the three-dimen-
sional qualities of the diorama enable it to give an illusion of
reality which makes it an excellent medium whereby to visu-
alize and vitalize any subject. Cardboard cut-outs, mechanis-
tic groups with moving trains and tractors, and Punch and
Judy theaters are not dioramas. A diorama may be made by
pupils, by teachers, or by both working together. The illusion
of reality makes the diorama an excellent aid in teaching his-
torical and geographical subjects, for its three-dimensional
qualities and modeled figures give depth and body to any
MODELS, OBJECTS, SPECIMENS. It may often be
found helpful to have actual specimens or scale-models to il-
lustrate certain lessons. When using materials of this nature,
great care should be taken to explain to students whether or
not they are seeing and handling a true-size specimen or a
model made to scale. In the vocational and industrial and
mechanical arts classes, the making of the models often con-
stitutes the lesson itself. In other subject areas the skills uti-
lized in making the models may be incidental to a knowledge
of how the object moves and works and functions. Specimens
are an important aid in science classes and nature study
classes. Actual specimens of birds, animals, reptiles, flowers
or rocks are important in teaching how to recognize these
objects. Specimens of Indian beadwork, Venetian glass, Afri-
can ivory carvings are priceless, not because of their intrinsic
monetary value, but because the handling and seeing of them
gives the student an opportunity to contact the work and arti-
facts of another people. Firsthand contact with the crafts of
another people does much to level barriers.
OPAQUE MATERIALS. This type of material and the
opaque projector are of great advantage in schools where it
is diflBcult to procure other audio-visual aids. Pictures from
magazines and books, color-prints, original drawings in black
and white or in color, and postcards may be used. Even the
most distant rural communities would have some of these
Pictures and objects may be presented separately or in re-
lated sequence. Pictures shown by the latter method are more
effective if they are mounted on a strip of paper of the width
required for use in the projector, and long enough to take care
of the picture sequence. This strip of pictures may be folded,
placed on the picture-plate of the projector, and each picture
on the strip released as desired.
The disadvantage of the opaque projector is that it is heavy
to carry and more difficult to "frame" the picture for projec-
LANTERN SLIDES. Lantern shdes were one of the first
teaching aids to be called "visual aids." Today a teacher should
specify whether she is using the "standard" lantern slide,
which in America is 3/4 inches high by 4 inches long, or the
small 2x2 inch slide. This latter slide, if it is a photograph in
natural color, is usually called Kodachrome (really a trade
The versatile opaque projector makes possible the use of many
varying visual materials.
name), and refers to the picture in color on 35 mm. film which
has been processed and mounted in a 2x2 inch mount or
frame. This same 2x2 inch size lantern slide, however, may
consist of black and white film so that, properly, we should
not call this size slide Kodachrome.
The standard 3/4 x 4 inch lantern slide may be drawn in ink
or crayon on clear glass, etched glass, or cellophane, or luma-
rith, covered with a cover glass and bound; or it may be made
by a photographic process and the resulting photographic
slide covered with a cover glass, masked, and bound. In either
case, the result is a glass lantern slide ( in color or in black and
white ) which must be inserted in a lantern slide projector and
projected on a special screen, on a white wall, on a shade or
other flat surface which enables one to see the picture.
The small lantern slide, as explained before, is photographed
either in color or in black and white. The resulting pictures
are mounted singly either in cardboard mounts or put be-
tween glass and bound as in the case of the standard slide.
This latter process serves to protect and preserve the film. This
slide, too, must be inserted in a projector and projected on a
Whether the lantern slide is standard or small size, its value
lies in the fact that ( 1 ) it brings pictorial material into the
classroom; (2) the projection on a screen enlarges the picture
so that it may be examined and studied; ( 3 ) the projected pic-
ture remains still and steady so that details may be noted and
Lantern slides of either size may be made up in sets and
shown in some particular rotation or they may be rearranged
and shown in different order as the need dictates. As many or
as few slides may be shown at a time as a teacher desires to
use, and the operator of the projector determines the speed at
which they are shown and changed. Each size lantern slide
requires a projector constructed particularly for that size slide.
However, where schools do not have projectors for the small
size shdes, adapters to hold these slides may be made or pur-
Large projectors, ordinarily used for showing standard 3^4 x 4 inch
slides can easily be adapted for showing small 2x2 inch slides.
chased, and used in standard size lantern slide projectors.
As is true with many types of visual aids, the value of lan-
tern slides may lie in the research and study involved when
pupils themselves make the slides. Slides purchased or bor-
rowed from commercial sources and servicing agencies will,
of course, be more "finished" products and their value lies in
the wide variety of material from all over the world that they
bring to the classroom.
FILMSTRIPS OR FILMSLIDES. A modern adapta-
tion of the lantern slide is found in the visual aid variously
called filmslide, filmstrip and stillfilm. Stillfilm was the origi-
nal trade name under which it was first manufactured and
applied to a roll of film attached to a spool and pulled by hand
through an adapter attached to a lantern slide projector. To-
day spool and adapter are no longer used. Instead, especially
designed projectors are made to project filmstrip. Filmstrip is
the preferred name and the one most often used, although
filmslide is not altogether incorrect.
Filmstrip is made by photographing scenes or objects on
narrow gauge, 35 mm. film, which contains sprocket holes
along each side of the film. This film is processed and the fin-
ished roll of film projected on a screen by means of the special
projector. (Projectors are available which may be used for
both filmstrip and the small size lantern slide. ) Filmstrip may
be in black and white or in color. Titles may accompany each
picture, or, as is often the case, a manual accompanies each
roll of filmstrip and comments and explanations may be made
by teachers or pupils. The operator of the projector controls
the speed at which the filmstrip is turned and may turn the
film forwards or backwards at will. One advantage of filmstrip
is its lightness and portability, since twenty-five to one hun-
dred pictures may be placed on a single strip of film which can
then be rolled and stored in a small light metal container. If
The filmstrip and its projector have the advantage of lightness and
desired, the strip may be cut into single pictures and each pic-
ture mounted in a 2x2 inch frame. Technically speaking,
these are the "film slides" and the entire roll of film the film-
strip. Teachers and students may make their own films trip,
thereby gaining many valuable lessons in the production of
visual aids. A disadvantage of filmstrip is that the sequence
of arrangement is fixed so long as the strip is kept intact, and
the order in which scenes are shown cannot be changed to suit
STEREOGRAPHS AND STEREOSCOPES, ANA-
GLYPHS AND VECTOGRAPHS. A stereograph is
a double picture usually mounted on cardboard and inserted
in a special viewer or instrument known as a stereoscope. The
factor that makes this visual aid of value is that the flat pic-
tures thus viewed take on three-dimensional qualities which
make objects in the foreground stand out as though real
against the background. This method of viewing scenes was
popular in our grandmother's day and is still of value today.
The photographs viewed have been taken by a camera with
double lenses separated by a distance equal to that of the nor-
mal distance between a man's eyes. One exposure is for the
right eye and the other for the left. The resulting picture is
viewed in a double optical unit in which the lenses are simi-
larly spaced. When this viewer is properly focused by the one
using it, the picture viewed takes on an illusion of depth and
The stereograph is for individual use. It is an excellent vis-
ual aid where it is desirable to have individual pupil research
and study. It is, because of its nature, not entirely satisfactory
for group study, although each member of a group may, of
course, eventually view the same pictures.
An adaptation of the stereograph, known as the orthovis or
anaglyph, may ^Iso be used to achieve an illusion of reality. In
this device a stereo graphic picture is printed in two colors
(usually red and blue ) , one superimposed upon the other and
examined through a special viewer containing one red lens
For individual pupil study, stereoscopes are excellent visual aids.
and one blue. The blending of the colors as seen through the
viewer gives depth and roundness to the picture, making it
seem quite real and lifelike.
Still another adaptation of the stereograph is the vecto-
graph. Here the print or picture may be in color or in black
and white, but the two photographs taken are printed on op-
posite sides of a polarizing film. The resultiAg print is then
projected on a screen for individuals and groups to view. Each
member of the group, however, must use a special polaroid
viewer or the print will not appear to have three-dimensional
qualities. This type of visual material was employed to a large
degree by both the Army and the Navy during World War II
and is being adapted for motion picture use. At* present it must
be made by professionals and has not been used to any great
extent by schools.
MOTION PICTURES, It is no longer necessary to define
a motion picture, for motion pictures are available in every
community. For the classroom teacher the decision to make
with regard to their use is whether or not to use sound or silent
motion pictures, black and white or color, and 35 mm. or
16 mm. film.
The last problem is most easily answered. 35 mm. must be
projected from a fireproof booth by a licensed operator. Few
schools have either the equipment or the necessary operator
so that this type of film is used mostly in large auditoriums or
for special occasions.
Most classroom motion pictures today are made in the
16 mm. width, noninflammable, acetate base film. Some of the
smaller 8 mm. width film is to be found, but this is generally in
use in homes. The 16 mm. film has come to be almost standard
school equipment. The usual reel contains four hundred feet
of film and takes about 12 minutes to project.
A student operating a sound motion picture projector in a Portland,
Oregon, public school.
The next two questions depend upon the school equipment,
the need of the moment, and the technique best suited to
meeting the need. If a school has only a silent projector, sound
film cannot be used. If the projector is a sound projector, the
sound track on a film may or may not be utilized. There are
times when it is best for all purposes to run a film without the
sound track so that students may not be influenced in any
way, or so that the teacher may make her own comments.
The question of whether to use black and white or color film
is usually answered for the teacher by the film producers.
Many films are obtainable only in black and white. Where
color prints are available, the teacher herself should judge
which type of film best meets the needs of her class. Good
black and white is preferable to poor colors. Many subjects,
such as operation of machines and similar topics, are clearest
when shown in black and white. Color is helpful when iden-
tifying geographic features, peoples, costumes and natural
objects. Color processing has improved, and films taken in true
color seem generally to take on a greater degree of reality than
those taken in black and white.
The motion picture, because of the factor of motion, shows
peoples and objects in action. This very factor, however, cou-
pled with the speed at which a film is projected makes it im-
possible to hold any one scene for lengthy examination, but
the movement and action in the film have the advantage of
creating an illusion of reality and make subjects real to
Teachers should never use motion pictures for teaching pur-
poses without first previewing them. Where sound effects are
essential to the understanding of the subject matter shown,
sound films should always be used. The motion picture should
not be used to "fill in" vacant periods, for recreation only
(except in cases where the program is frankly an entertain-
ment), or as a substitute for careful, well-planned teaching.
The motion picture is not a rapid, sure-fire way of teaching
everything and should not be considered as such.
Motion pictures are available today for use in practically
every subject area. Excellent films are available from commer-
cial and industrial sources, from museums, from community
organizations, clubs, historical societies, state and federal
agencies and many other sources. They should be brought into
the classroom and used wherever and whenever possible.
It is not difficult to learn to run a motion picture projector.
Every teacher worthy of the name should learn to use this
equipment and make it part of her methodology and tech-
niques. Schools should provide the best equipment they can
aflFord and principals should see to it that teachers have the
opportunity to use the equipment to best advantage for all
It has often been found advantageous to form "Visual In-
struction Squads" and train students in the use of visual equip-
ment. This practice has helped meet the need for projectionists
when only one teacher knows how to run the machines, and
has also instilled a respect for the equipment in the students
themselves. Such squads, however, should always be under
teacher guidance and supervision for best results. It is also a
practice which works best with older students. Younger stu-
dents are more likely to be careless with equipment and to
become upset when mechanical difficulties arise.
RADIO, RECORDINGS, AND SOUND SYSTEMS.
Many schools and classrooms today have facilities for the uti-
lization of radio, and phonographic recordings in classrooms
and auditoriums. The phonograph and records are fairly well
known to most people. Records used in schools may be orches-
tral selections, instrumental pieces, songs, dances or speeches.
In addition to the kinds of records just listed, there is the
transcription, or recording made of a radio program, a speech
or other public event. These transcriptions make it possible
to bring into the classroom programs and speeches dealing
with current events and the spoken word, and help to vitalize
facts that might otherwise be little more than the printed
word on a page of a textbook. Schools should be equipped
with phonographs and play-back machines so that these re-
cordings may be used in conjunction with other types of
Radio is a two-way audio-visual aid— it works from without
and from within the school. Programs originating in radio
studios, under technical supervision and professionally di-
rected, may be brought into the classroom through the me-
dium of radio sets and loudspeakers installed in the classroom.
By this means, programs prepared directly for school use,
famous concerts, public events, may all be made a part of the
learning experience of the students.
Radio from "within" the school may take the form of pro-
grams prepared and carried out by the students themselves.
If public address equipment and microphones are installed in
The phonograph is a valuable audio aid in nursery school as well
as with older groups.
a school, Students can then put on their own programs. The
experience gained from writing scripts, timing and planning
programs, and carrying out mechanical details are all of great
value for students today. Frequently this type of experience
lays the groundwork for future vocational training.
STORY-TELLING, ILLUSTRATED TALKS, DEM-
ONSTRATIONS. The human voice is the first "audio-aid"
that a teacher has to draw upon. Well-told stories, whether in
nursery school or high school classrooms, make vivid and last-
ing impressions. Many times some legend or little-known ac-
count of details not covered in a textbook will change pupil
attitudes and reactions towards a subject. Teachers should
include the telling of stories by themselves and by pupils in
their planning of audio-visual aid programs.
The story illustrated by carefully selected lantern slides,
pictures, films, dioramas or other visual aids, which supple-
ment the details supplied by vocal descriptions, can be made
an effective aid in a teaching program. This type of presenta-
tion is particularly important in the area of social studies, art
and English, but it could also be used to advantage for mathe-
matics, science and vocational studies.
Science teachers have for years been familiar with demon-
strations whereby certain principles in chemistry, biology, or
physics have been shown. Scientific equipment, such as micro-
scopes and other apparatus have been used in these demon-
strations. This equipment should be supplemented today with
the inclusion of the other aids already mentioned. Demonstra-
tions of techniques should not be confined to the science
classes, but should be utilized in all subject areas.
TABLEAUX, DRAMATICS, SONGS, DANCES. Tab-
leaux, plays, in fact, all dramatic presentations are audio-
visual aids. This is particularly true when the dramatic pres-
entation is built around some historical event or social episode.
In the preparation and presentation of such programs all the
various types of visual aids may be called upon; slides may be
All dramatic presentations are audio-visual aids whether they be
flower pageants by elementary pupils, or elaborate performances.
shown for the makers of the stage scenery and costumes to
study; records played to famiharize the orchestra with the
music; radio programs hstened to as models of good speech
The final presentation itself is, of course, an audio and a
visual program both for those giving it and for those watching.
Although the entertainment factor may seem uppermost in
such presentations, many lessons are learned in the prepara-
tory period that will be of value in more formal class periods.
Songs and dances are an almost universal language for man-
kind. An understanding of the songs and dances of another
people leads to an understanding of the people themselves.
Songs and dances should be included both in single class proj-
ects and in group and school projects.
^'TREASURE TRIPS'-FIELD TRIPS. The audio-visual
aids described thus far have all been those used within the
classroom or school building, but there often comes a time
when effective teaching demands contact with materials out-
side the school. "Treasure trips" or field trips supply this need,
but they are of real value only when carefully planned and
correlated with classroom work.
The treasure trip may be a visit to^ museum or community
center where objects of art, natural history, or science may be
seen under the guidance of trained leaders and in accordance
with pre-planned programs. It is a field trip, but one in which
the teacher knows that every step of the way has been planned
This Baluchitherium just won't fit into a classroom. Treasure trips
to museums are invaluable when correlated properly with school
to fit into a definite over-all pattern designed to enrich the
Field trips may be taken to parks, zoos, famous buildings,
docks, factories, libraries, stores, to any place whose resources
will help vitalize the lesson of the moment. The best trips are
those well-planned in advance; those for which preparatory
and follow-up work are provided; those which do not include
so great a variety of things to see that physical fatigue inter-
feres with appreciation of the things seen; those in which the
student is encouraged to return on his own time or with his
parents to see more. The field trip combines the hearing and
seeing of things, and a teacher should try to include at least
one, and sometimes many, such experiences in her programs.
COLOR AND SOUND. The use of color and sound has
taken on increased importance today. The world around us
has color, and we are constantly listening to sounds.
In selecting audio-visual aids the teacher should strive to
get those which give as realistic and natural pictures of sub-
jects as possible. In the selection of sound equipment, those
aids should be used which give as good tonal qualities as pos-
sible. It is better to use non-colored and silent materials than
to use those which give false impressions.
Research in these two fields, however, has made great
strides. Motion pictures, slides, filmstrips, dioramas, and
most of the other aids mentioned in this chapter, have reached
a point where there seems but little more that can be done to
improve them. The changes that will be made to adapt them
to meet teaching situations more eflFectively will be in the
application and use of color and sound.
RELATIVE ADVANTAGES. There is no one perfect
audio-visual aid. The sooner we find this out, the better.
The audio-visual aid, or combination of aids, which can pro-
duce the most effective result in a given teaching situation
should be considered best— but only in that situation.
When an illusion of reahty is desired, a diorama will usually
achieve this. When it is desirable to see persons and things in
action, living and moving, the motion picture is usually the
best aid to employ. When lengthy and detailed examination
is desired, the best results will probably be attained by the use
of mounted pictures, lantern slides, and filmstrips— or actual
specimens themselves. Diction and speech are helped by listen-
ing to recordings of famous speakers and to radio programs.
No one can tell a teacher exactly what to use. The good
teacher knows the pupils in her class, their weaknesses and
their strength. If she is worthy the designation of teacher, she
will have as many types of supplementary materials at hand
as possible, and then use them singly, or in combinations, in
the ways which she feels will help her make the subject under
consideration come alive and acquire reality and solidity for
her pupils. Audio-visual aids are particularly effective in cer-
tain types of programs. Succeeding chapters will indicate
what these are and offer suggestions for using them.
THE APPEAL TO THE EAR today is increasingly exten-
sive. Through the radio which may be found in most homes
and many schools, we have all developed the habit of listen-
ing. No other medium is more powerful in social life and edu-
cation in making children— and adults— world-conscious. No
other medium can make it possible for so many to share an
experience at the same time. No other medium can so com-
pletely remove space and time and so effectively eliminate
differences between city and rural ways of living in various
RADIO. Radio programs are not only popular in appeal but
many of them are of direct or indirect educational value.
Through the imagination of the listeners which creates pic-
tures in keeping with the audio appeal, there is also strong
appeal to feeling, to emotion. The play or dramatized story is
vitalized by sound effects, the characters take on form and per-
sonality as the listener identifies himself with the action of the
plot. Many radio programs have definite educational objec-
tives. Several of the programs of the large nation-wide radio
networks are planned to integrate with various areas in the
curriculum, to increase the interest of boys and girls and to
promote leisure reading.
Some educational programs are more effective for school
use in one part of the country than another, because of the
time element which allows the inclusion of these programs
during school hours. Other programs, not available in school
hours, also serve to enrich and vitalize literature, humanize
history and the sciences, encourage the desire for good music.
Short stories, novels, plays, even Shakespearean dramas, are
presented. Various "Theaters of the Air" in which well-known
managers, actors and authors take part, not only enrich litera-
ture per se, but promote, by example, better diction and voice
and a richer vocabulary. Often they encourage the applica-
tion of the interest aroused by the program to the writing of
original material. Boys and girls may be guided in their crit-
ical judgment of programs which are truly literary and equally,
if not more, interesting, than those which are of no value
in the enrichment of any area of the curriculum or in char-
Although the radio must entertain as well as educate, the
two may go hand-in-hand. Educators, broadcasters, sponsors
should— and no doubt will— cooperate more closely and more
intelligently, for only by each recognizing and understanding
the aims and problems of the other, can better and more
stimulating educational programs be prepared which will be
acceptable, also, from the point of view of entertainment.
Then the radio, through station programs, their transcriptions
and recordings, will become an increasingly powerful audio-
aid in education. What radio has accomplished for politics,
news, and commercial advertising, it can and should do for
Today, more than ever before, radio programs bring the
world to the home and the classroom, bridging time and
space. Radio is of inestimable value as a medium of com-
munication in an age of communication. It is our greatest
means of communication, since distance from centers of learn-
ing is no hindrance. In the United States alone there are four
coast-to-coast networks, thirty-five regional networks, nine
hundred and thirty local stations, and sixty-five thousand
fifteen-minute units of program service daily. Under a new
system of radio engineering, "frequency modulation," there
may be as many as ten networks. But why are there, today, so
few educational institutional stations? Is it lack of funds, lack
of interest, lack of technique? Why are there not more stations
like WHA College of the Air, the University of Wisconsin's
"broadcasting outlet" in Madison, which brings to its listeners
courses conducted by University professors, home and agri-
cultural information through the Home Makers' Hour and
Farm Program? Surely this station has been an aid to com-
TELEVISION. Radio has, of course, supplied information
through the medium of "hearing." Television will bring to us
the "seeing" or visual medium. When we actually show a
program in a classroom as well as listen to it, audio-visual aids
will be functioning as complete units for the enrichment of
classroom teaching. There is no doubt but that television has
great possibilities as a visual aid. It also has limitations which
have not as yet been overcome in a suiSicient degree to make
it possible to use television to any extent in the classroom
itself. Scientists and engineers are making progress, however,
and it is to be expected that these difficulties will soon be
The entertainment potentialities of television are accepted
facts today. The educational potentialities have not yet been
fully realized. At present the size of the screen on which the
televised image or picture is shown is too small for classroom
use. The average class is too large to be seated so that all may
see the picture. Secondly, television sets are expensive and the
value to be derived from their use is not sufficient to warrant
expenditure of school funds for this type of equipment. Larger
television screens are being manufactured and it has been
predicted that in about five years' time television sets will
be as common as radio sets are today.
• The usual procedure now is for classes to visit a television
studio if this medium is to be employed as a teaching aid.
Most of the larger broadcasting companies are planning tele-
vision programs suitable for junior and senior high school
classes, but the classes must go to the studio to see or partici-
pate in the programs. Classes from schools in the cities where
these studios are located have access to the television pro-
grams. It is difficult, however, for classes in rural areas to make
trips to the studios. The programs are thus not available to
Scene from a high school student forum on current topics televised
over WCBS-TV in collaboration with the New York City Board
AIR AND AIR PRESSURE. The American Museum of
Natural History has pioneered in the presentation of educa-
tional programs through the medium of television. The fol-
lowing program is the result of a memorandum prepared by
Mr. Julius P. Postal, Supervisor of Radio and Sound, for
Dr. Charles Russell, Chairman of the Department of Educa-
tion, both of that museum. It was prepared in order to give
an idea of the potentialities and limitations of television. The
film "Air and Air Pressure" used in the program was particu-
larly well adapted to illustrate how the characteristics of tele-
vision can be used to advantage. A plan to make special films
for television use giew out of extensive experience in the
presentation of experimental scientific and educational tele-
casts. Some of these were entirely "live/' Others combined
"live" appearances by actors and scientists with film material.
It soon became apparent that live science telecasts were
not only severely trying to the scientists, but were costly,
time-consuming, and had an embarrassing way of developing
unpredicted quirks. For instance, snakes would become nerv-
ous or extremely active under the hot lights. Or life-like
artificial flowers of the type for which the Museum is famous,
would soften and melt. Then, ultra close-ups involving f oUow-
focus, which require extreme care under the most favorable
circumstances, would go out of focus at precisely the wrong
The technical problems are not insurmountable; they are
well on the way to solution. But it is unlikely that the move-
ments of a baby raccoon are ever going to be as predictable
and as controllable as those of a trained actor or actress.
The simplest of laboratory demonstrations, which presents
no problem in a high school physics laboratory, can put a tele-
vision crew into a state of fidgets when it is a matter of split-
One thing that will probably never be eliminated is the
ever-present need in television for rehearsal, more rehearsal,
and still more rehearsal. To a school, a teacher, or a scientist,
the time factor is apt to be a real deterrent. Furthermore, once
a thing is done before a television camera, and has gone out
over the air, it cannot be recalled, re-edited, or done over
again. This is a limitation from which film, fortunately, does
not suffer. Also, in film production, the burden of carrying off
an easy, natural, sustained performance is not as trying to
the amateur-actor, given proper direction, as it is in television.
In short, although television potentially has an immediacy
and a directness which film cannot duplicate today, television
will always have to lean upon motion picture techniques for
flexibility which is not inherent in the new medium.
Many television people look to films as a- means of cutting
down the high cost of producing "live" telecasts. Although
there are film-wise people in television today, a great many
other people associated with the new art do not sufficiently
appreciate the costs of film production. Whether pre-filming
will actually afford material savings to television companies
remains to be seen. However, pre-filming will prove a boon
where studio and rehearsal facilities are limited. It will also
ease the problem of personnel allocation during the actual
The usefulness of television in the classroom will depend
to a large extent upon the production of less costly receivers
and the availability of large-screen receivers. The production
of these is merely a matter of time, as is also the production of
To meet immediate possibilities for television, the program
"Air and Air Pressure" was prepared as a television film-pro-
ject. It is designed to demonstrate a few scientific principles
by means of things which are available in the home environ-
ment. It may be used as a guide for classroom demonstrations.
A Tele-Science Production
Pnotoorapned and produced by
Julius and Naomi Postal
to do is to
show you a lew
simple demon -
strations wKicli you can |
? found i
(Music under the following titles)
Opening Title: air and air pressure*
Second Title: a tele-science production
Third Title: photographed and produced by
JULIUS AND NAOMI POSTAL
Fourth Title: all we want to do is to show you
A FEW SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIONS WHICH YOU
CAN STAGE IN YOUR OWN HOME. MORE DETAILED
INFORMATION CAN BE FOUND IN TEXTBOOKS.
* This is part of an actual script of a television broadcast. ( The left-hand
column represents the "video", or, visual component of the telecast— what
would be seen on the viewer of the television receiver. The right-hand column
is the narration to be spoken to explain and supplement the "video".) The
narration has now been recorded on film and the entire program is available
as a standard 16mm. sound film which can be run on any standard sound
projector. It is available through The American Museum of Natural History,
New York, N. Y. ( Copyright 1946 by Julius and Naomi Postal. )
TITLE: SOAP BUBBLES
A tumbler of soap-suds with
a bubble pipe sticking out of
the tumbler. Someoneis blow-
ing into the pipe but we can-
not see his face,
DIFFERENT ANGLE: BubblcS
stream over the side of the
tumbler onto the table.
MEDIUM shot: a small boy is
blowing a long festoon of
bubbles which pyramid down
to the table.
This boy is demonstrating a
well-known phenomenon. He
is blowing air through a bub-
ble pipe into soapy water. The
air rises in the form of glob-
ules surrounded by a very
thin, taut film of soapsuds.
Every molecule in the soapy
film strongly attracts every
other molecule in the film.
The air inside each soap bub-
ble is under pressure— greater
than that of the surrounding
A single large bubble grows The pressure of the air inside
upward out of the pipe bowl, the bubble is further in-
creased because the soap film
tends to contract and shrink
MEjyivM SHOT of Mother blow- You'll notice that Mother is
ing bubbles through wand- not using a regulation bubble
like affair at camera. pipe. She doesn't have to,
because glycerine and other
chemicals have been added to
the bubble fluid to increase
the surface tension and cause
bubbles to form more readilv.
( 2 second pause ) These bub-
bles will last longer, before
bursting, than those formed
with ordinary soapy water.
Starting with low angle shot. There's just no trick to it at
Daddy's hands insert four
ordinary soda straws into a
jar containing some bubble
Daddy's hands begin to lift
the straws out of the bubble
Anybody can do it.
Yes, anybody, including Dad-
dy can do it. But Daddy has
to experiment. Will it work
with ordinary soda straws?
What do you think? . . .
LONG SHOT, from side: Daddy Daddy gets more bubbles, but
lifts the four straws to his lips, they are smaller.
A cascade of small bubbles Bubble pipes may serve no
issues from the straws. other purpose than amuse-
ment. On the other hand,
LONG SHOT of tof of Washing
machine. The agitator is
working. On top of the water
is a layer of creamy suds that
appears to he two or three
Identical set-up as in previous
shot. Mothers arm enters
frame. She draws her hand
through the layer of foam,
leaving a long trail, then lifts
up a handful of the very
bubbles in the laundry may
indicate whether a tubful of
water is ready to do the wash
Most laundry soaps and pow-
ders will lather richly if the
water is "soft" and at the right
Generous bubbling indicates
that the soap is well distrib-
uted throughout the water.
The foam is now very light
and fluffy. There is soap in
this foam, but in the main, it
consists of hundreds of thou-
sands, perhaps millions, of
tiny globes of air.
TITLE: AIR PUSHES EGG INTO MILK BOTTLE
MEDIUM SHOT of Mother tear-
ing a newspaper into strips
and pushing the strips loosely
into a milk bottle.
Peter, the cat, watches in-
You can try this simple ex-
periment with air pressure in
your own home.
A hard-boiled egg, from
which the shell has been re-
moved, is big enough to seal
the mouth of the milk bottle,
yet sufficiently yielding to
squeeze through the neck of
the bottle when pushed in by
Peter, the family cat, who
loves to eat eggs, watches
hungrily. Mother will give
him the egg, after she re-
trieves it from the bottle.
Matches are struck and
brought to the bottle's mouth.
ultra-close-up: The matches
are lowered into the neck of
The newspaper strips are seen
burning brightly inside the
The plan is to create a partial
vacuum within the bottle so
that the external air pressure
will cause the egg to be
sucked inside. We can accom-
plish this by burning strips
of paper inside the bottle. The
heated air wall expand and
some of it will be driven out.
The egg is placed in
mouth of the bottle.
the Once the egg is in place, the
flame will suffocate and go
out. The expanded air will
cool off and shrink in volume,
thus giving us in the bottle
the partial vacuum we need.
CLOSE up: By stop-motion
photography the eggs de-
scent into the milk bottle is
speeded up. After oozing, as
it were, through the neck, it
drops suddenly into the bot-
tom of the bottle.
This process usually takes
several minutes. Stop-motion
photography speeds up the
LONG shot: Peter, the cat, is
eating the remains of the egg
out of a dish.
Peter, the patient cat, gets
the egg after Mother removes
it from the bottle with a fork.
Columbus may have made an
egg stand on end, but 111 bet
he never knew that trick!
TITLE: AIR PRESSURE CRUSHES CAN
A five-gallon can is lifted onto How strong is a tin can? In a
a gas range. A glassful of moment well see what 10,000
water is poured into it. The pounds of atmospheric pres-
flame is applied to the gas sure will do to it. By the way,
burner. that's the pressure normally
exerted by the air on a can of
this size at sea level — 15
pounds per square inch— or
10,000 pounds over its entire
LONG shot: Steam is seen
issuing from the can.
To create a partial vacuum in
the can, we shall boil this
water over the gas burner,
and let the expanding steam
drive out the air.
This will take several minutes.
Camera tilts upward until If you try this in your own
steam fills most of the frame, home, be very careful, be-
cause both the can and the
steam get very hot. After the
vapor has been coming out
for two or three minutes, the
next step is to screw on
the cap quickly and turn oflF
LONG shot: The can slowly The steam will now condense
begins to buckle. and return to its original state
—water. (Pause) Since we
drove out the air previously,
a partial vacuum results.
The can is now seen severely Here is the can, crushed by
buckled and distorted. 10,000 pounds— or five tons—
of air pressure.
( End title with music ) 65
V. L/ramatic Presentations
DRAMATICS AS a method of curriculum enrichment is
not new. Children have always liked to "make believe," to
act, to project themselves into all kinds of adventures. They
enjoy improvising and need no scenery or costumes to make
the situation a real one to them. They are, for the time being,
the characters they portray. A home-made microphone is all
that is necessary for a radio program, and even the micro-
phone can be imagined! Radio programs planned and pre-
sented by boys and girls have strong appeal in creative expres-
sion, are eflFective in a review of work, and create a deep
interest in the area or areas of study presented. Book reviews,
poetry hours, original stories, plays, choral reading and public
speaking, take on added interest through this medium. If
"television" is desired, stereopticon or kodachrome slides may
be used to produce the eflFect and add further enrichment.
STAGE PRESENTATIONS. In an impromptu stage play,
a table, chairs, and the suggestion of costumes are all that are
needed. The imagination of the children will supply the rest.
Perhaps that is why Chinese plays and Chinese paintings can
always be understood and appreciated by children. They are
able to feel and interpret the dramatic and painted scenes in
the way the authors and painters meant them to do.
When costumes and scenery are possible in a drajnatic pres-
entation, whether tableau or "living picture", or the stage
play, the visual appeal is stronger and— linked with the audio
appeal— enables dramatics to become a powerful stimulus and
aid in education. The enthusiasm which the simplest dramatic
presentation kindles is in itself a guarantee to happy and effec-
tive learning and also a relaxing, therapeutic experience.
Through dramatizations, reticent children are often "drawn
out of themselves" and their self-consciousness, and induced
to spontaneous self-expression under happy conditions. The
pageant, especially the community pageant, in which chil-
dren of various nationalities often take part, promotes social
tolerance and understanding as well as develops dramatic
instincts and abilities. The pageant and operetta usually com-
bine the cultural languages of all nations— drama, art, music
and the dance. All those who deal with children know how
versatile they are in all these media, how happy in each
method of creative expression. Art, music, the dance, speech
and diction are effectively integrated.
STORY TELLING. Every good dramatic presentation—
whether radio play, stage play, tableau, pageant or operetta
—has at its heart the story. The sound effects of the radio play
help the visual imagination, just as the scenery and costumes
of the stage play add true visual appeal to the audio, help
interpret the story and make it vivid, for plays are stories in
Stories, presented graphically and dramatically, are helpful
in any area of the curriculum, for there is inherent in every
boy and girl a keen sense of the dramatic. Whatever is told
them in a vivid, living way will never be forgotten.
In the middle ages the story-teller, favorite of kings and
queens, lords and ladies as well as of boys and girls, made
vivid before his audience banqueting within the tapestried
and torch-lighted hall, a jousting scene or tournament with
brave knights contending; or the song-story of Aucassin and
his fair, sweet lady Nicolette. In like manner the story-teller
Story telling by the author Dr. Chandler in an Audio- Visual En-
richment Program in Hunter College Elementary School evokes
an enthusiastic response from her young audience.
of today interprets and vitalizes art, music, the sciences,
history, and hterature for boys and girls. Through the story
the people of long ago become real and alive. There is a better
understanding and enjoyment of the creations of their hands
and minds and hearts. How much more vivid a story may be-
come when visual aids— stereopticon and kodachrome slides,
color-prints, habitat groups, dioramas and, most important of
all, realia— add their appeal.
For example, a story about Crusaders becomes so much
more real and vital when, through visual aids, the audience
sees a suit of armor made of thousands of carefully welded
metal links, like that worn by King Richard of the Lion Heart!
A glimpse of the great hall of a castle with jester, serving man,
knight and fair lady, torch light shining upon tapestried walls,
gives the visual setting for the dramatic audio-appeal of the
story, and increases its imaginative stimulus. A well-planned
illustrated introduction to the story also may be used as an
eflFective way to lead into the narrative.
It does not seem necessary to add that the story should be
vivid and dramatic, that the action should move clearly and
swiftly as the story-teller loses himself in the characters of the
story who skillfully play their parts.
PUPPETS. The story, again, is the core of the puppet show,
in which the spoken word is of great importance, although
the technique of the story-telling is difFerent. In puppet story-
telling the voices which help in the various parts must be
exaggerated to the same extent as the figure characters.
Puppetry may be traced far back into the days of old. For
centuries, and in many diiferent parts of the world, puppet
shows have been given before appreciative audiences of old
and young alike. We tend to think of such exhibitions as being
Participation in a puppet show is an opportunity to combine art
designed for the delectation of young folk, but in the Orient
adult audiences sit for hours enthralled by the gestures and
movements of skillfully manipulated figures. In Bali the
shadow play occupies the place filled in occidental life by the
motion picture; in China, shadow puppets made of donkey-
skin parchment were first presented to entertain aristocratic
ladies who could not leave their homes to attend the theater.
Puppet shows were a popular form of entertainment in Asia
and in Europe for many years. The Punch-and-Judy show is
another type of puppet show which has long enjoyed favor,
and today there is a revival of interest in this form of artistry.
HAND PUPPETS. Today puppets and puppet-shows have
a distinct contribution to make to audio-visual enrichment
programs. The simple hand puppet, consisting of a head with
a costume-body into which a child may thrust his hand is
easily made by the pupil and particularly effective with classes
of young children. The heads may be made of cloth, stockin-
et, balsa wood or paper; the costumes may be simple lengths
of cloth shirred to the head. These puppets are popular with
children in pre-school and lower elementary school classes.
Simple stories may be dramatized with puppets of this type,
and lessons "acted out." One good practice is to make hand
puppets of favorite characters from story books and then to
enact the stories themselves. This procedure enables a child
to visualize stories which have been told to him or which he
is just learning to read.
STRING PUPPETS. String puppets are more complex to
make and operate, but they are effective visual media. They
have a greater appeal for older children than do hand puppets,
and some very fine puppets have been made in high school
art classes. They may be mere simple figures, or they may
be intricately carved and carefully costumed. The production
of a puppet show, with string puppets, affords an opportunity
to combine work done in art, English, and dramatics classes;
it is also a splendid project for a dramatic club to undertake.
Research and study are necessary in order to make repre-
sentative figures, correctly costumed. Craftsmanship of a high
order is essential to insure carefully molded or carved figures.
Attention must be given to speech and diction by the students
who are to act as "voices" of the puppets. The successful
manipulation of the strings controlling the puppets requires
coordination and timing— all of which afford good training for
students participating in these programs.
Recently a very effective puppet show dealing with dental
hygiene has been given in many of the schools of New York
City. Many lessons might well be dramatized and made more
graphic if presented as puppet shows. There is no reason why
the puppet characters and story script should not deal with
actual social situations and personal problems encountered
by children as well as with fictional stories. We have here a
visual medium which has not been fully utilized by the schools,
and which should be included to a greater extent as part of
the audio-visual program.
VI. ireasure irips
Example oi Trip
M O S T E F F E C T I V E of all the types of audio-visual enrich-
ment is the "Treasure Trip", the school trip or journey. It
has been highly approved from very early times. John Com-
enius, "Father of Visual Education," w^hose Orbis Pictus
of 1638 was the first illustrated book, commended it. The edu-
cator, Jean Jacques Rousseau of the eighteenth century, advo-
cated it in his "Education of Emile", and Johann Heinrich
Pestalozzi, the Swiss educational reformer of the late
eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, approved it.
School trips or journeys were used in English education as
long ago as 1905 and 1908. France and Belgium developed
this type of visual aid before World War II more extensively
than did the United States. Short and long trips were prac-
tised, even inter-school visits, pupil exchanges, and youth
hostels, which have also been encouraged here.
Some still feel that all education should be in the school-
room, and that community agencies such as museums, li-
braries, historical sites, markets, botanical gardens, shipping
departments, factories are not a vital part of education. Mod-
ern educators, however, now realize the intrinsic value of this
reality of experience, although the problems of sufficient time
and heavy school schedules often prevent its effective use.
An important objective in education is that our boys and
girls know their immediate environment, its history, ideals
and achievements reflected in places and monuments of
artistic, historic, literary, civic, industrial, commercial, and
recreational interest. That knowledge can best be acquired
through direct experience, through Treasure Trips carefully
planned and motivated; and carried out with purposeful and
meaningful correlation with the curriculum. These provide
firsthand, basic experience in the activities of the children's
immediate world, their "world of reality".
Of great significance to everyone is a trip to the United Nations'
General Assembly. This is a model of the proposed permanent UN
headquarters in New York City.
Through this vital type of audio-visual enrichment more
accurate information is gained and retained, more interest
aroused than by any amount of verbal learning or, in most
cases, by any other visual aid, although various types of audio-
visual aids are invaluable in preparation for the trip. School
becomes a part of life, learning a happy experience, as pupils
and teachers work together in planning and carrying out this
experience. The resulting discussions are equally important
because of the pupils' active participation. The richness of
individual experience in these "journeys" gives each child
something to contribute.
The school journey is the most real and the most concrete
of the visual techniques and it is the most accessible and often
the least expensive. It stimulates a desire for individual and
group research, increases the power of observation, intensi-
fies appreciation of original materials ("treasures") in their
proper settings, and provides a clearer understanding of their
relationships. This functional learning outside the walls of the
schoolroom, this most concrete of all audio- visual enrichment,
is especially helpful in the development of the units which
children and teachers have chosen. These Treasure Trips are
recognized as invaluable in education, whether they are group
or individual, whether in or after school hours, when they are
carefully and cooperatively planned and executed, creatively
followed up, and critically evaluated. It would hardly seem
necessary to suggest that the teacher become acquainted with
the material, the goal of the trip, before the class visit.
"TREASURE HOUSES'' OF RE ALIA. There are mu-
seums and libraries, historic sites, and monuments in most of
our cities and towns where treasures have only potential value
unless they are enjoyed. The word "Museum'' in the minds of
adults even today too often connotes merely a storehouse of
ancient objects divorced from life. That feehng is partly due
Nature study at the zoo draws the undivided attention of city
ta>" ilHi^^^^^^E^^v ^
jfiflF ^^^^^^» ^^^^^^g
to an attitude which has developed on the part of the pubUc,
but is more often the responsibihty of museum officials who
have considered their treasures alone, rather than the people
to whom these treasures partly belong. To the youth of this
generation, an art museum is not a storehouse of statues on
pedestals, of pictures encased in deep and wide gilded frames
so high on the walls that they cannot be seen, or of treasures
arranged with little thought for the convenience and capacity
of the beholder for personal enjoyment. It is a Treasure House
full of light and color, of ancient and modern treasures ar-
ranged with the spectator in mind and the purpose of reflect-
ing the lives of those who created them. A museum of natural
history simulates life itself in its habitat groups, models and
dioramas with their natural settings and exactness of scale
and color. Museums of science and industry appeal to the
sense of touch as well as to those of seeing and hearing in their
mechanical models which the visitor may manipulate. Most
museums feel that children should be allowed and encouraged
to enjoy their finest treasures.
Botanical Gardens for nature study classes, the zoo for the
younger children, airports, harbors, markets, city halls, civic
centers, churches, factories, restaurants where food, music, and
costume are like glimpses of other lands, offer Treasure Trips
which will humanize and vitahze every area of the curriculum.
Model in the Metropolitan Museum of Art ( New York ) of a castle
banqueting-hall which vividly portrays a phase of life in the Mid-
( This Treasure Trip is not suggested for any one age level,
but should be adapted by the teacher for Elementary, Junior
or Senior High School groups, to make use of the audio- visual
materials in the specific community in which the school is
As an example, consider a trip in New York City back to the
days of Knights and Pages, Castles, and Cathedrals. Other
cities and towns would have other Treasure Trips for the en-
richment of chosen areas in the curriculum. In outlying dis-
tricts where such Trails as this are impossible, "Imaginary
Treasure Trips" may be taken through the help of audio-visual
aids which may be procured from various sources.*
Before the trip, discussion in class has integrated social
studies, language arts, art, and arts and crafts. It has vitalized
those areas by pupil and teacher research and by carefully
selected and arranged stereopticon or kodachrome slides of
castles, cathedrals, lords and ladies in medieval costume,
knights in armor active in jousts and tournaments. Some chil-
dren will have brought from home pictures of knights in
armor, of castles with drawbridge and moat, of hunting and
hawking parties, of banquets in castle halls. The teacher will
have acquainted herself with the museum treasures, either
by herself or under the guidance of the museum instructor.
Then the trip itself which, through careful planning, has
the eager attention of the group, and minimum fatigue, since
too many treasures have not been included for the one visit.
Boys and girls of today are transported back into those colorful
days of the Middle Ages. In the Metropolitan Museum of
Art they see knights in chain and plate armor made by artist-
armorers who combined utility and beauty. How vivid the
glimpse given of a castle banqueting-hall by a lighted model
which shows dais, jester, serving man, page, lord and lady,
even the fire upon the castle floor reflected upon the tapestries
which decorate the walls! A model of a cathedral, a com-
munity work erected to the worship of God by builders, sculp-
* See Chapter XVI.
tors and craftsmen who gave of their very best for its perfec-
tion, takes added meaning when compared with New York's
great Cathedral of Saint John the Divine * with its glorious,
colorful windows, its towers, and sculptured doorways. A trip
there is promised for next time!
As a climax, a visit to the Cloisters is planned— a Treasure
Trip for another day not too far distant so that the continuity
will not be broken. There, each religious figure, the loving
work of a medieval sculptor, stands in its niche alone, that it
may make its religious and artistic message felt more deeply.
There tapestries tell their stories and delight the eye in pat-
tern and color, their gold-covered threads sparkling as they
did when they decorated castle halls; as the Httle make-be-
heve tapestries seemed to do in the model of the castle hall.
Statues, colorful windows, tapestries, the echoing cloisters
some seven hundred years old, and a beautiful old garden-
all re-create that long-ago period and give it meaning. There
is definite multi-sensory appeal through the eyes, through the
touch— for although fingers may not actually rest upon stone
drapery, flesh or gold-covered tapestry threads, the appeal to
the touch is there. And there is appeal to the ears in the echo of
steps on the stone floors, in the very silence of those cloistered
halls. The rush and roar of the modern city are silenced, and
the contemplative quiet of the thirteenth and fourteenth cen-
turies pervades the senses.
* St. John's Cathedral-New York City, Amsterdam Avenue, at 112th Street,
or any cathedral or church patterned after medieval church architecture.
DISCUSSION. Following each trip another discussion in-
cludes each member of the group— eager contributions given
spontaneously, comparisons of medieval life with that of today,
or armored knights with our modern knights of land, sea and
air. Free creative work follows in individual and group re-
search, in writing, building, painting, modeling, weaving,
slide-making— all inspired by the Treasure Trail.
At the Cloisters (New York) a guide aids a group to appreciate
fully the wealth of treasures to be found there.
ITISTOBE regretted that to many people engaged in edu-
cational work the mention of visual or audio-visual aids
immediately calls to mind the motion picture. The motion
picture is an extremely important aid to teaching and one
which helps to vitalize much of the subject matter taught in
all schools. But we do need to bring into use in the classrooms
of this country more three-dimensional teaching aids, more
realia and models and materials which give a more lasting
impression than an image flashed across a screen.
THE DIORAMA. The diorama (already defined on page
26) is one of the most helpful of visual aids when it is de-
sirable or essential to create an illusion of reality. By means of
this small group it becomes possible to set up in the classroom,
scenes of life in the far comers of the earth, re-creations of
scenes from the past and representations of life or countries
which might otherwise be hard to describe and picture.
To date no statistical studies have been made to evaluate
the effectiveness of the diorama. However, there is, and al-
ways has been, a universal appeal in the miniature which stirs
imaginations and lends reality to these groups. Children ac-
cept a diorama with little questioning, and recognize that it
is a representation of reality rather than reality itself.
Dioramas may or may not be lighted by means of an elec-
tric bulb set into the top of the case. One advantage in adding
AIDS AND REALIA
illumination to the diorama is that it then becomes possible
for the scene portrayed to be shown in a room darkened for
motion picture or slide projection. Attention may be called to
the diorama from time to time to keep in mind the group or
country which is being shown in the film or slide.
The use of animation in a diorama is not desirable. Motion
or animation of any kind tends to make the group seem like a
toy contraption or gadget and detracts from the illusion of
reality. If the aim is to teach mechanical processes it would
be better to examine an actual machine or a model.
The diorama, first developed in the museums of the United
States about 1912, was introduced into the schools as part of
the circulating collections of materials provided by the mu-
seums. Today teachers and pupils are making dioramas as
class projects, and finding them practical and valuable.
The diorama as developed by the museums, and used and
made by teachers and students, usually consists of an oblong,
box-like case with a curved background and a foreground on
which are placed modeled figures and accessories. They are
placed in front of the background in a forced perspective
which makes them appear to merge into the background as
real objects merge into a background of sky and scenery.
This combination of curved background and forced perspec-
tive is what creates the illusion of reality.
Flat, cardboard boxes with cut-out figures set in grooves
are not dioramas. They are cardboard cut-outs. If used as such,
they may have value at times, but it should be remembered
that few things in this world are absolutely flat. Because it is
three-dimensional, a true diorama gives depth and body to a
scene which flat pictorial materials fail to do.
The diorama used alone, however, is not the perfect teach-
ing aid. If specimens of clothing, household utensils, jewelry,
and ceramics are grouped around it, the visual appeal is
heightened. Then, through added use of motion pictures,
slides, maps, and photographs, the subjects will assume reality
in the minds of students.
MINIATURE STAGE-SETS. Among the "forerunners"
of the diorama were miniature stage-sets, dish gardens, models
of houses, gardens and temples. These are also of value as
visual aids for use in classrooms. Stage-sets have long been
used in Enghsh, literature, and dramatics classes. It might be
well if they were used more frequently in social studies, lan-
guage, and art classes. Historical episodes can be made to take
on reality if acted out by small figures moved about on a
miniature stage. Community organizations, groups, and gov-
ernmental agencies can be set up on these same small stage-
sets and made to move about as though meeting in regular
The sand-box provides an opportunity for early training in
the use of maps. Whole communities and areas can be marked
out and set up. The sand-box is particularly good when the
class is one of younger children. However, the training of
young men in our armed forces taught us that sand-boxes and
AIDS AND REALIA
models have value with older students, too. It is possible to
use this material to illustrate any type of lesson where dia-
grams and plans are part of the work. It is easy to show how a
town is planned, streets laid out, and roadways located if a
sand-box is used.
For more elaborate plans and models, the table-top scene is
A miniature stage-set, complete with characters, is here used as a
clever advertisement for the "live" show to be presented later.
always useful. In this instance, a village, a scene, a group of
people, can be laid out on the top of a table, desk or case. A
group may first be set up on a base of cardboard so that it is
possible to move it from place to place. No background is
provided in this instance, and the group is actually a model.
MODELS, DOLLS, COSTUMES, FURNITURE,
RELICS. In addition to the table-top model, we may include
models or representations of everything from locomotives to
washing machines. If the original is something which moves, it
is preferable to make the model move in the same way. Unless
this is so, the model is only a toy or ornament and has little
value as a teaching aid. A good flat picture serves to show
what an object looks like, but a model should show how an
object moves and is used.
Dolls, particularly those in the costumes of the different
peoples of the world, help to familiarize children with the
style of dress and physical appearance of people other than
themselves. It is well to bear in mind that as dolls and modeled
figures of human beings increase in size, they become less life-
like. Dolls over eighteen inches in height often seem very
artificial and do not have as great an appeal for children as
smaller ones. The costumes and clothing should be as true as
possible to the actual clothing worn by people whom they
Dolls may either be dressed by the children of a class or
they may be those purchased from commercial sources or
AIDS AND REALIA
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Dolls and relics can be displayed in classroom or hall showcases.
acquired in the course of travels to foreign countries. While
the costumes made by children may not be as perfect as those
made by professional doll-makers, there are many lessons to
be learned from planning and making such clothing. Research
is necessary to verify types of clothing worn, and skill in sew-
ing is necessary to put the garments together. In secondary
schools students of art and fashion design carry out projects
of this nature. Flat prints, slides and motion pictures may all
be studied first before such a project is undertaken.
It is difiicult and seldom necessary to bring actual furni-
ture into a classroom. Size and space do not warrant the use of
large pieces of furniture, but scale or miniature models may
be used to serve the same purpose. Unless the class is one in
home-making, and actual furnished rooms are provided for
the students, models of furniture serve to familiarize the
Such an exhibit stimulates student interest in other peoples.
students with period styles.
Relics, whether they be Indian arrowheads or grand-
mother's wedding-shoes, always have an appeal for children.
The actual handling of material from another age and people
provides a learning experience hard to duplicate. It is the old
story of firsthand evidence being the most important. Wher-
ever possible, an attempt should be made to gather as many
relics or artifacts as are available. An appeal to parents and
adults will often reveal unsuspected sources of supply of
these materials. If the specimens are irreplaceable, they can
be arranged in a cabinet as a special exhibit, but an attempt
should always be made to secure some articles which may be
passed around and handled. As a teaching aid, an arrowhead
which may be touched and felt is twice as valuable as one
which must be kept behind glass.
AIDS AND REALIA
MOUNTED NATURE SPECIMENS. The ideal way to
study nature is to go on a field trip. But even where this is
possible, it is desirable to have mounted specimens for de-
tailed study in the classroom. Mounted specimens of birds,
animals, reptiles, insects, rocks, may be purchased from sup-
ply houses or borrowed from museums. In addition, students
should be encouraged to gather and prepare their own collec-
tions. With classes in the elementary schools this usually
means bringing together miscellaneous objects and mounting
them on squares of heavy cardboard for safekeeping.
In the case of students in the secondary schools today the
process may be quite an elaborate and technical one. It is no
novelty for a student to skin, prepare and mount birds and
animals, dry and pin-mount butterflies and insects, and set
up a demonstration illustrating a biological principle. This
practice should be encouraged, for here the study involved in
preparing the visual aid is of more value than the aid itself.
We need specimens for purposes of identification but the
student also needs to know something about the skeletal struc-
ture of these same specimens. This knowledge is not gained
through mere visual observation. Opportunities must also be
provided for analytical study of what constitutes the specimen.
LIVE ANIMALS AND PLANTS. No student, whether
of elementary school or secondary school level, can be ex-
pected to appreciate and understand natural objects, plants
and animals, unless some provision is made for him to have
actual contact with these objects.
In the pre-school and lower grade levels living things and
plants give the child a concept of growth, of life, of color, and
of beauty in his own immediate world.
In the higher grades these same living, growing things be-
In the primary grades, living things and plants give the child a
concept of growth, of life, of color, and of beauty in his own imme-
AIDS AND REALIA
come important for still another reason. They provide a means
for arousing an interest in nature study that may carry over
into adult life. This is especially valuable in the case of city
schools. Here students often have little or no opportunity for
field study of plants and animals in their native habitats. The
specimens exhibited in terrariums and aquariums should be
well cared for and maintained. Students should be taught
early that regular feeding and care of living specimens is abso-
lutely essential. They must also be instructed in the proper
care of plants.
If it is deemed wise to maintain a nature room, with live
animals such as squirrels, mice, rabbits, raccoons, and grow-
ing plants, experienced advice should be sought as to the best
means of maintaining this type of material. A nature room,
where all the students in a school may come to observe the
specimens and become familiar with natural objects, is always
a popular place. Such a room should be considered an im-
portant part of the audio-visual program of a school.
MULTI-SENSORY APPEAL. The materials described in
this chapter appeal as "multi-sensory" aids. Their value lies
not alone in the visual attraction, but in the many different
ways by which they can be used to arouse student interest.
In any class there is always a group with whom the visual
appeal will serve as the best method of teaching a subject. An-
other group can better be reached through the sense of hear-
ing, and still others need to feel and handle materials. Some
will gain an understanding by simply reading their textbooks.
The classroom is thus a miniature world, made up of dif-
ferent types of child-people. Teachers need to remember this
in selecting materials for classroom use. Whatever the abili-
ties or intellectual levels of the students with whom they are
dealing, there is some aid which, properly used, will make the
subject under consideration richer and more real. The best aid
to use at any particular time is, therefore, the one which gives
to the lesson the greatest degree of reality.
VIII. 1 lome-anc
MANY OF THE MOST valuable and effective teaching
aids are those which have been made either by the teachers
themselves, by the students, or by teachers and students work-
ing together after formal classroom time.
HOBBIES AND CLUBS. We have long been familiar with
language, dramatic and social clubs as part of the extra-
curricular school program. Today there is increasing evidence
of the popularity of clubs devoted to the production of radio
programs, the making of models, the collecting of various ob-
jects, the production of motion pictures, and craftwork. These
clubs may be made the sources for the production of many of
the things used in the classrooms as teaching aids. Individual
students or groups of students with kindred interests should
be encouraged to develop hobbies. Radio clubs, camera clubs,
stamp clubs, nature clubs, all have a definite value as part of
the extra-curricular activities which ought to be provided
in the school program.
The greatest value to be derived from these club or hobby
groups is the interest aroused in doing things. Once this
interest is aroused, it becomes easy to set a boy or girl to work
on a craft project or other activity. If the nature of the club
activity is such that the work must be done by the group as
a whole, then valuable lessons may be learned in how to work
together. If the work is to be done by individuals, then each
HOME- AND SCHOOL-
child may either be encouraged to work on something similar
to what his fellow club members are doing, or may carry out
some specific piece of work which is uniquely his own.
In either instance, manual skills are acquired, social ameni-
ties learned and observed, and the available supply of school
materials increased. Even though the objects thus made
eventually become the property of their student makers, their
owners will proudly acquiesce when asked to lend them for
school exhibits, special demonstrations or lessons. Following
are some suggestions of audio- visual aids which may either be
made or collected at home, or in the classroom itself, by indi-
vidual students or by school club groups.
STAMPS, SOUVENIRS, RELICS, These materials are
already made, but must be collected and brought together in
some order before they take on value as teaching aids. The
collecting of stamps is a hobby which has given satisfaction
to many, old and young alike. In order to be of value as teach-
ing aids, the collections of stamps should be arranged or
grouped according to rather clearly defined subject areas. For
instance, "map stamps" or "famous historical character stamps"
or similar groupings are good ways of arranging collections.
If a geographical grouping is desired, then perhaps all the
stamps of a particular country may be brought together, and
a study made to locate the places and buildings shown on the
Collections of souvenirs and relics may be grouped in much
the same way as stamps. All the different items that are
gathered on visits to various places of interest in the com-
munity often form the nucleus for a school museum collection.
Relics that have been unearthed by seekers for historical in-
formation about a community may well be added to this col-
lection. People in the community are often glad to contribute
relics and artifacts of early pioneer days if they are informed
of how much these mean to groups of students interested in
SCRAPBOOKS. The making of scrapbooks should not be
allowed to become mere busy work. Neither should the scrap-
books themselves be collections of unrelated items. An entire
class may participate in the making of a scrapbook, or each
member of a class may make one. If a class is working on some
specific unit, a scrapbook may be kept to show how the unit
was planned and carried out. In this way it is possible to have
a complete story, with pictures of the various units of work
done during the term.
Scrapbooks may contain newspaper clippings, photographs,
drawings by children, letters, essays, lists of sources con-
tacted for materials, samples of fabrics, catalogs, timetables,
maps, in fact, any collection of items that will help to present
and tell a story. The layout and preparation of a scrapbook
offers a good opportunity for a study of bookmaking, printing
HOME- AND SCHOOL-
LANTERN SLIDES AND PHOTOGRAPHS. It may at
first seem strange to classify lantern slides and photographs
together. However, when we are thinking of teaching aids that
may be made in the classroom, much the same thing may be
said of both of these aids.
Both the standard 3^4 x 4 inch and the small 2x2 inch
lantern slides may be made by pupils. Let us consider first
the standard slide. This may be made in almost every class
from the first grade through the twelfth grade high school. It
is possible to purchase excellent kits of materials to use in
making lantern slides. These kits provide the teacher with
everything from glass, crayons, and paints to the binding tape
The actual painting and coloring of the lantern slide offers
an opportunity to develop artistic skills. Research and plan-
ning are also needed in order to know what to include in the
slide picture. An excellent classroom project is the making of
a set of lantern slides to illustrate the topic under considera-
The 2x2 inch slides and photographs have much in com-
mon, for both necessitate the use of a camera. This is no
reason to refrain from making them for school use, however,
for the modern boy or girl is quite likely to be an ardent
amateur photographer. Camera clubs are to be found in a
majority of the high schools of the United States, and exhibits
of the work done by their student members give proof of the
excellent standards maintained. In many instances the work
exhibited is equal to that of adult and professional camera
If it is possible to establish and equip a darkroom on the
school premises, the entire photographic process from snap-
ping the picture to developing the negative and making en-
largements may be carried out either by a class or by camera
In the case of the 2x2 inch natural color lantern slides^
the film used is a special film which is sent to the manufacturer
for developing and processing. It is good practice to encourage
the taking of these pictures, however, for the students learn
to handle film, time exposures, observe color and lighting
effects. A good project to undertake is the making of a set of
colored 2x2 slides of the school life, the student body, and
the programs carried out as a part of the average school day.
Other good projects include pictures taken while on nature
walks, and scenes of community landmarks.
SCHOOL ''MOVIES". In many junior and senior high
schools today there is often a school "motion picture squad"
on the scene making motion pictures whenever an event of
importance takes place. Such squads may also be seen filming
stories especially written and prepared to enrich particular
subjects such as science experiments, demonstrations of cook-
ing, hat-making, or interior decoration.
There, should be supervision and guidance by some faculty
member in these film-making activities. The making of a
HOME- AND SCHOOL
school movie involves many phases from the planning of the
story, script- writing and casting, to the actual filming of the
scenes. If there is no faculty member with the requisite experi-
ence to guide this work, an eflFort should be made to secure
the assistance of a parent or resident of the community. This
type of activity is best suited to the junior or senior high school
The English Department or the Drama Club may be called
upon to help with the writing of the script. The Art Depart-
ment is always a source of help for scenery and costumes. The
Manual Arts Department should be asked to help in the mak-
ing of props and equipment. Many groups and clubs may
assist in the making of the film, but there should always be a
coordinating or supervisory committee whose duty it is to
follow the entire project through from beginning to end.
Committee members must see to it that the actors are on hand
when needed, that the script is followed, and that necessary
materials are provided.
The finished film may seem slightly amateurish to some, but
there is always a keener interest on the part of students in a
school-made film than in a professional one. Lessons are
learned in its making which might not otherwise be learned—
what makes a good picture, what to include in a scene to tell
a story, how to translate factual information into visual pres-
It is also interesting to note that after some experience in
making motion pictures, students become more critical in their
observation of professional films. They look for and detect de-
tails which previously went unnoticed. They become more
critical of films shown in commercial theaters and begin to
build up for themselves standards by which to judge all types
This radio station at Brooklyn ( New York ) Technical High School
provides a sound basis for future careers.
HOME- AND SCHOOL-
RECORDINGS AND RADIO. In this modern age of
sound it is often desirable to have recordings of speeches,
sound effects, or musical scores to accompany school-made
motion pictures. It is possible to secure for school use, not only
phonographic machines on which records may be played, but
also machines for the making or cutting of these records. This
material is not too expensive and students may be trained to
"cut" recordings of orchestral numbers and speeches.
Students should also be encouraged to make and service
radio sets for school use. Here again are examples of teach-
ing materials which may be made during the formal class
period or as a club undertaking. Work of this type provides
training which has a distinct vocational and professional value
If a good basic sound system is installed in a school build-
ing, it can then be the duty of students to operate and direct
programs using this system. Extra equipment, microphones
and turntables, can be prepared and set up by students under
the direction of the teacher in charge of the radio club.
Many of the radio operators and signal corps men of our
army and navy gained their first experience with radio equip-
ment while still in school when they set up an amateur receiv-
ing set for the school or for a boys' club. New improvements
are constantly being made in this field and the materials avail-
able for school use have been greatly simplified. The nature of
the work done makes it especially appropriate for junior and
senior high school classes.
DIORAMAS. The making of a diorama is not a difficult
undertaking. Manual and artistic skills are drawn upon; re-
search is necessary to decide what should be put in the
diorama; and craftsmanship determines how it is made and
put together. The actual diorama may be a simple scene
illustrating some story studied in class or showing life in some
country studied. As the children become more adept in han-
dling materials, or with older classes, the diorama made may
be more elaborate and finished.
High school students, during their art classes, can make dioramas
for use in other courses. Craftsmanship in construction contributes
to eflFectiveness and reality.
HOME- AND SCHOOL-
Many teachers who felt that they had httle or no artistic
ability have been surprised at the good dioramas they were
able to produce when they really tried. For some years now
the American Museum of Natural History has conducted a
training course in the techniques of diorama-making. Teach-
ers who reahzed the visual appeal of this aid have learned to
make artistic and worth-while dioramas. They, in turn, have
passed this knowledge on to the children in their classes.
A diorama made with curved, cardboard background and
simple, modeled figures may be made at little expense. The
illusion of reality produced by these groups make them ex-
tremely valuable. Therefore, a true diorama should be con-
structed and not merely a box with cut-out figures. It is highly
important in making groups of this type to observe this rule.
Whether the entire class cooperates in the making of one
diorama, or whether several dioramas are made by small
groups of children depends upon two factors: first, the amount
of time which can be devoted to the construction of the
diorama, and second, how many dioramas are really needed
for any one class project. One diorama, well-planned and care-
fully constructed is better than a number of hastily put to-
gether, flimsy groups.
MODELED FIGURES. It seems almost superfluous today
to stress the value of creative learning, of making things.
Puppets and modeled and sculptured figures are a part of the
heritage which has come down to us through the ages. Chil-
dren, especially in the elementary grades, love puppet shows.
There is an appeal to these figures which are made to move by
strings and sticks that is hard to explain.
Hand puppets are easily made and may be little else than
glove-like cloth figures which are slipped over the hand and
manipulated by moving the fingers. These are readily fabri-
cated by children in the very low grades.
A miniature group by a master modeler, Dwight Franklin. De-
picted below is the purchase of Manhattan Island.
HOME- AND SCHOOL-
Carved puppets require more skill in the making and are
better suited to older children and to members of dramatic
clubs. Many beautiful balsa wood puppets have been made
by students for high school dramatic-club performances. This
teaching aid should never be classified as wholly belonging
in the elementary school.
Children of every age love to carve and model figures,
whether the medium used is modeling clay, plasticene, wood
or soap. Work of this type provides an outlet for individual
artistic expression and should be encouraged. Pupils should
be taken to see famous statues, the work of world-renowned
artists in art museums. They should also be taken to see the
beautifully mounted specimens of taxidermic art in the natural
history museums. Exhibits of pupil- work provide an incentive
for greater eflForts in this field and should occur frequently.
SAND-BOX SCENES, MURALS. Creative activities
should include the making of many types of objects. In some
instances it is wise to make sand drawings, flat table-top
scenes and simple murals before attempting to make carved
figures of the type already mentioned. All of these types of
creative work, however, have their place in the list of class-
It is possible for groups of children to cooperate in the
making of the aids under immediate consideration. This is one
advantage to keep in mind when planning the program of
work. Many hands may help to make the murals for a school-
room wall or for an assembly program, such as a pageant.
Again it should be remembered that the making of these
materials is of value only when it contributes to the process
of learning— the acquiring of skills, factual information, ap-
preciation of arts and crafts, or when it is used as a means of
getting a child to express himself. Visual aids of this type
should not be made simply to fill in time or as busy work.
Truck farming on a sand table-top is as absorbing and instructive
as the real thing.
HOME- AND SCHOOL-
AQUARIUMS, TERRARIUMS. For many years Ellen
Eddy Shaw of the Brooklyn Botanic Gardens worked to show
children how to grow and care for plants. Her methods and
ideas have been carried out by many others. We have come to
realize how important it is for children, especially children
who live in large cities, to learn how to grow and work with
living things. Pots of growing plants on the window sill of a
classroom not only provide a bit of color, but they also provide
an opportunity to show how things grow, how they develop.
The same may be said for all types of nature study materials.
A thorough foundation should be laid in elementary schools.
Will this grow in our school garden? A trip to the public botanical
gardens will increase interest in the classroom terrarium.
Aquariums and terrariums should be made, stocked, and
cared for by the pupils themselves under teacher supervision.
Actual firsthand contact with materials of this nature give the
child a greater appreciation of nature study and all that it
includes. Textbooks, stories, pictures or charts are not ade-
quate to give the child the appreciation which comes through
contact with living, growing plants and animals.
The field trip to woods and fields, parks, botanical and
zoological gardens and similar places is, of course, an ideal
way to show living, growing specimens to children. But they
should also have as much of this material as possible where
they may watch, observe, and care for it themselves while
studying about it. They should be encouraged to plant seeds,
to collect and identify leaves, fruits, flowers, and to stock
aquariums. In other words, materials of instruction should
include those objects which surround us and which we should
learn to know in order to be able to see this world in its
. Enrichment oi Social Studies
THE MORE VIVID and human we can make history and
geography, the more vital those areas become in the cur-
riculum. Word pictures of historical events and personages,
however excellent such descriptions may be, often lack the
desired concreteness of experience. Pictures, stereopticon and
kodachrome slides, filmstrips, stereographs, dioramas, dra-
matics on the stage, over the air and on the screen, stimulate
interest in the word pictures and make them real, human, and
If an objective of education is to develop the personality of
the individual and fit him to live successfully and happily with
other people in the world, making his definite contribution to
society, surely social studies, enriched by well-selected and
related audio-visual aids, are vital tools in accomplishing that
objective. This area in the curriculum has to do with the social
life, the thoughts, deeds, hopes and ideals of people. It deals
with the social and economic problems of the past which con-
tribute to the understanding of the conditions of the present.
Through pertinent audio-visual material, boys and girls are
challenged to discuss and interpret the significant factors in
the life of yesterday and today.
School experiences and life experiences will be so closely
related that they will be as one, reflecting the ever-changing
physical and economic-social environment, and its influence
upon attitude and action. There will be a more sympa-
thetic understanding of the relationship of one human being
to another, of one nation to another. An example of this is
the official classroom radio project of the National Education
Association which has been helpful in bringing about Pan-
American Unity through dramatic presentations. In addition
to these are the programs which have come from the "Work-
shops" and "Theaters of the Air," vital in giving children
greater interest in and better understanding of the world in
which they live.
Through these aids there will develop a broadening of in-
terests and human understanding, a realization of the inter-
relationship of the various areas in the curriculum as con-
tributing factors toward international information which will
help bring about world brotherhood. Soon television and films
will be combined in telecasts which will add their potency of
combined visual and auditory appeal. History and geography,
vital with the personalities which humanize it, will become
more alive with color and drama.
BETTER MAP TEACHING. The map has long been used
by teachers of the social studies to give pupils a picture of this
world in which, and on which, human beings live and work as
social entities. Maps are pictures of this world— their prime
purpose is to give a picture of nations and places. As pictures
they are visual aids which should be so used that pupils are
made aware of the fact that the social studies deal, not only
with man and his tools and way of living, but also with the
physical environment in which man works out his pattern of
There are many different types of maps, poHtical, physical,
population, rainfall, pictorial. There are maps which are crea-
tions of artistic skill and craftsmanship, and others which are
mere combinations of lines and dots. There is a map to illus-
trate almost every item that might conceivably be dealt with
in the social studies. Teachers should endeavor to have as
many different types of maps available for use as they can
secure. These maps, used as aids in visualizing this world in
which we live, will help pupils to understand world condi-
tions, and will thus help to vitalize the social studies lesson.
PAINTERS AND SCULPTORS. Painters and sculptors
have done much to make social studies vivid, to enable the
seeing experience, not only to illustrate, but to vitalize the
word pictures of history. Painters of history, past and present,
often tell their stories more convincingly than writers of
history do. What written account of an historical personage
can convey to us his personality and character as swiftly and
convincingly as a portrait of that person which brings out the
inner quaHties of mind and spirit as well as the physical ap-
Gilbert Stuart's portraits of George Washington, for ex-
ample, are what most of us visualize when we think of our
first great leader. Mark Twain announced that if George
Washington should come back to earth and not resemble
Gilbert Stuart's portraits of him, he would be denounced as an
impostor! An artist who pictures an historical event has the ad-
vantage of being able to present the entire episode at the same
time, whereas the historian must unfold it, page by page.
Those painters and sculptors who not only tell a story truth-
fully and dramatically, but with all the beauty of their vivid
language, best make history live. Thus, the seeing experience
not merely illustrates but vitalizes the word pictures.
With this in mind, teachers who select visual aids to enrich
the social studies, whether they choose originals, slides, photo-
graphs, book illustrations, will soon distinguish between those
artists of historical scenes who are interested only in telling the
story, in commemorating patriotic events and personages as
historical records, and those who contribute beauty to what
they have to say. Let words make our historical records as such,
and paintings and sculpture supplement them as vitally and
beautifully as possible, for art is a cross-section of history.
MOTION PICTURES AND THE RADIO. As for mo-
tion pictures, authoritative studies have proved their eflFective-
ness in arousing greater interest and understanding of causes,
results and relationships, and of human relations. Most would
Stuart's portrait of Washington is a well-known example of effec-
tive visual presentation of the personality and character of an his-
agree that radio is playing an important role in interpreting,
humanizing and vitalizing social studies, in bringing to the
boys and girls the world of many peoples and events. With
television, the usefulness of radio as an audio-visual aid in
curriculum enrichment will be greatly increased, reaching as
it does such a vast audience in homes and schools.
TREASURE TRIPS. Actual school journeys or Treasure
Trips, and imaginary ones if the real trip is impossible, to
period rooms with their furniture, costimies, arts and crafts,
make history especially meaningful and bring to life the people
who made that history. For in considering the history of any
country and period, the social life and creative expression of
the people play an important part in presenting human experi-
ences. Concrete images take the place of indefinite ones, and
stimulate a better understanding of environment.
A child may read about an old fireplace and see a book
illustration of it, but he will not gain the feeling of reality
which comes from standing in front of a big, three-dimensional
fireplace in a real room with its heavy-beamed, low ceiling, a
room which actually came from a Pilgrim home. The brass
warming-pan reflecting on its polished surface each passing
light, the Betty-lamp, pewter dishes, desk-boxes which held
the Pilgrim Bibles, andirons, colorful cushions, combine utility
and beauty and reveal much of the early American way of
living. Any boy or girl can people these rooms with Pilgrim
men, women and children in their simple homespun costumes,
living frugally on a new, untried shore.
How quickly and vividly such a visit stimulates observa-
tion and thought, as the young discoverers follow clues, solve
problems and find treasures! The actual treasures, realia, vital-
ize history and geography, humanize and socialize them. In
connection with these trips, stereopticon and kodachrome
slides carefullv selected and related add to the vividness of
The Colonial rooms in the American Wing of the Metro-
A realistic miniature group by Dwight Franklin brings to life the
history-book presentation of Washington's first inauguration.
politan Museum of Art transport boys and girls who are study-
ing that period in history, to the actual time of George Wash-
ington and other patriots. The ballroom from a tavern in
Virginia where they danced as fiddlers in the balcony played
the slow and stately music of the minuet, re-creates that scene.
A stereopticon slide or photograph of Howard Pyle's simple
but dramatic drawing of General Washington leading his old
mother through the doorway of the ballroom as Colonial and
French oflBcers and their ladies bow respectfully may be very
eflFective. Slides, photographs and color prints of portraits of
Washington by early American painters will also help pro-
duce the vividness of the experience.
The mahogany furniture of that period, inspired by the
famous furniture-makers of the mother country, shows the
change from the straight lines of the sturdy Pilgrim furniture
to the curved lines, more beautiful wood, more decoration,
greater grace and delicacy of the following century. Paul
Revere silverware, simple^ beautiful in form, proportion, light
and shadow, and sparing of ornament, speaks well for the
craftsmen's art in combining utility and beauty. Through this
reality of experience the people of Colonial days step from
the pages of the history book, alive and human, and take their
places in their own environment.
In districts where there are no museums or historical houses
with their period rooms, there should be period furniture and
costumes in some of the homes. With pupil and parent help,
Pilgrim, Colonial and Nineteenth century settings may be
laid in the school library or classroom, and become effective
as the background for an original play or plays in which his-
torical characters "come to life".
Audio-visual aids— book illustrations, photographs, slides,
filmstrips, dioramas, and films— are indispensable. Schools
which have no projectors for slides, filmstrips, or films, will
be able to borrow photographs, book illustrations and color
plates from the geographic and travel magazines in the
nearest library to supplement textbook and supplementary
reading illustrations. Schools with projectors will be able to
procure slides or films, or a combination, from educational
sources ( See chapter XVI ) .
"National understanding" will take on real meaning when,
through audio-visual aids, children of our cities become ac-
quainted with western cattle ranches and wheat farms, with
mining districts and southern cottonfields; when children of
farming, cattle and mining regions know more about life in
Boston, New York, Washington, Chicago, San Francisco.
By means of this audio- visual enrichment, social studies pre-
sent to children a study of life, an understanding of the social
and economic problems which contribute to conditions of the
past and the present. Through these audio-visual aids social
studies foster a keener realization of the relation of one human
being to another, of one nation to another.
EDUCATORS REALIZE more than ever before that the
vigorous method of teaching social studies through audio-
visual materials is needed in training for democracy, and for
an understanding of the interdependence of all peoples.
These aids may emphasize and interpret the common cul-
tural languages among all nations— painting, sculpture, archi-
tecture, arts and crafts, music, the dance, and dramatics. Arts
and crafts throughout the ages reveal the application of art
to practical life and help interpret human desires and needs.
They are the very essence of the people who produce them.
When they are presented in their proper settings through
audio-visual materials, they give a better understanding of
the influence of environment.
The story of furniture, for example, is an important part of
the history of the manners and customs of different peoples.
Delicate lace, rich enamels, embroidery, pottery, glassware-
all are arts widely spread throughout the whole human race
revealing the social and economic life, the culture of the coun-
tries from which they come, the creative "heart" expression
of the people through the craftsmen who combine utility and
In the same way music, the dance, and dramatics have
grown up with the people of every land, express the feelings
of their creators and arouse like emotions in the hearts of those
who hear and see them. These common cultural languages
demonstrate the similar interests, desires and goals of all peo-
pies, the realization that we are all human beings belonging
to one world, hoping for a lasting peace through world cul-
ture, justice, tolerance, the Brotherhood of Man.
Educators all over the world understand this and are mak-
ing a plea for world culture. A realization through vital,
human, sensory learning of the cultural heritage and creative
contributions of the nations of the world will help boys and
girls interpret and satisfy human desires and needs. More than
that, it will help shape conduct. Pride in the achievements of
the past will be fostered, intercultural understanding stimu-
lated, and creative responses encouraged in thought and
Would not programs like the following, enriched by talks,
stories, slides— both in black and white and in color— films,
color-prints, and dioramas, help bring about this realization
of world culture?
The common language of art increases understanding between
races and nations. Here an Indian craftsman enthralls a young
audience with ceremonial sand designs.
UNDERSTANDING AMONG NATIONS
THROUGH THE COMMON LANGUAGE
OF ART, MUSIC AND THE DANCE
1. UNDERSTANDING AMONG NATIONS THROUGH THEIR
HANDICRAFTS. Illustrated by slides, many of them in color,
and a film, Voices in the Air, showing the closeness of nations
2. DANCES OF MANY LANDS. Story of the dancc, illustrated
by slides from world masterpieces and film. On With the
Dance, showing dances of various countries. Dance demon-
strations by the pupils.
3. STORIES OF GREAT BUILDERS. Stoiy of architecture, illus-
trated by slides. Film, Historic Cities of India, stressing the
Taj Mahal. Discussion by the pupils.
4. FAMOUS BUILDINGS OF THE WORLD bascd ou program of
previous week. Identification and discussion of slides by the
pupils. Film, Churches and Cathedrals.
5. HANDICRAFT STORIES illustrated by slides and examples
of weaving, enamel, jewelry, etc., brought in by the pupils.
6. MUSIC AND MUSIC STORIES. Victrola records in story fol-
lowed by film. An Optical Poem ( in color ) , showing the close
correlation of color and music.
7. HIGHWAY OF FRIENDSHIP. Story of the Inter-American
Highway, illustrated by sHdes, film and diorama.
8. CRAFTSMEN OF MEXICO. Story, kodachromc film, dio-
9. LIVING THE PICTURES. Slidcs, black and white and color,
of world paintings, sculptures, etc. Impromptu tableaux by
the pupils and quick sketches from memory.
10. HOW TO PAINT THE CHINESE WAY. Story, slidcs, dio-
rama, and kodachrome film. Discussion by the pupils and the
teacher of likenesses and differences of paintings of the East
and West. Poems by children, inspired by pictures.
11. EARLY AMERICAN GLASS. The story of "Baron" Stiegel,
illustrated by slides and followed by two films : The Baron and
The Rose and Recording Modern Sciences, comparing the old
and the new.
12. A CITY OF MANY NATIONS. Slides of Old New York and
New York of Today. Recognition and discussion by the pupils,
followed by film, Up and Down New York.
13. LIBERTY IN AMERICA. Story of Washington, Jcffcrson
and Monroe. Slides of the three leaders and their beautiful
homes. Film, in color, of their homes. Discussion of the
"Birth of our Democracy and Hopes for the Future."
14. COLOR PRINTS AND THEIR STORIES. Exhibition of paint-
ings by artists of many lands, followed by choice and discus-
sion by the pupils.
15. MAPS OF MANY KINDS— OLD AND NEW. Film, Airplane
CJianges Our World Map. Exhibition of maps. Discussion of
"Our Changing World."
16. ART IS MANY-SIDED. Talk with slidcs: ivories, enamels,
furniture, costume, ironwork, etc. Discussion by the pupils.
17. ORIGINAL WORK BY CHILDREN. Talk by the pupils, fol-
lowed by slides of painting, sculpture, arts and crafts.
18. PICTURES MADE ON WOOD BLOCKS AND METAL PLATES.
Slides and film. How to Make an Etching.
19. ARTISTIC ADVERTISING— EAST AND WEST. Travel and
commercial posters. Place of commercial art in world of today.
Discussion by children, followed by posters made by the
20. BEAUTY IN NATURE AS SEEN AND EXPRESSED BY ART-
ISTS. Talk, illustrated by sHdes and followed by film. Nature
In each program,* planned to cover one week, the seven-to-
eleven-year-old groups reached. There are discussions and
creative contributions by the pupils and integration with the
work in the classrooms, f
International workshops or exhibits in our schools correlate
with and vitaHze the audio- visual programs which present and
interpret the cultural contributions of nations. "Treasures" no
matter how small, which boys and girls of different nationali-
* Slides and color prints from The Metropolitan Museum of Art and The
American Museum of Natural History. Films and dioramas from the latter
Museum and films from The International Theatrical and Television Co., Inc.
and The Harmon Foundation. Similar slides, films and prints may be procured
from educational and commercial centers in various parts of the country. See
Chapter XVI-"Where to Obtain Help."
f These Audio- Visual Enrichment Programs, and their integration with the
Educational Department of the College, were sponsored by Dr. Florence
Brumbaugh, Principal of the Hunter College Elementary School, Professor
Philip R. V. Curoe, Chairman of the College Department of Education, and
Dr. Frank T. W^ilson, Coordinator. The programs for 1946, Fall, and 1947,
Spring, continued "World Understanding" through visits to many countries
of the world. They were sponsored by the acting Principal, Mary M. Burgess,
and were conducted by Anna Curtis Chandler, Chairman of Audio- Visual
ties bring from home, stimulate pride in the artistic achieve-
ments of all the nations, east and west, lead to a better inter-
cultural understanding and encourage their own aesthetic
responses and desires to create in poems, songs, crayon,
chalk, paint, clay and dioramas. Emphasis upon our cultural
education, the common cultural languages, through these
audio-visual aids which eliminate time and space, is a sure
foundation for world understanding, for universal brother-
Real understanding of other peoples is obtained only when
we gain some knowledge of how they live, what they eat, what
they wear, what they do and what they are thinking about.
When you see things from neighboring countries and meet
people whose heritage is just a Httle different from your own,
you soon begin to notice similarities between their ways and
yours. Progi'ams for world understanding should strive to em-
phasize similarities, instead of continually stressing differences
between peoples of the world.
The artistic skill of ancient Aztec sculptors is depicted in this Tem-
ple of Quetzalcoatl, Mexican deity of culture and civilization.
In 1945 and 1946, at the American Museum of Natural His-
tory, as part of the program for schools visiting the museum,
there w^as a series of special "Weeks." These weeks w^ere de-
voted to programs designed to bring a picture of the life of
different peoples of the w^orld to pupils in the New^ York City
schools. There vv^as a "Mexican Week" in February, 1945; a
"South American Week" in April, 1945; and an "Oriental
Week" in October, 1945. In each program, emphasis was
placed on the clothing, food, arts and crafts of the people of
the area. As far as possible, living models took part in the pro-
gram. Classes, visiting the museum for these programs, were
made to feel that they were seeing the costumes and foods and
craft- work of people who were friends and neighbors. The fol-
lowing are brief descriptions of the programs as carriisd out
at the museum. Programs of this type might well be adapted
and carried out as part of a term project by one class, or by an
FOOD. A demonstration by a Mexican woman of the way to
make tortillas. Exhibit of stone metate for grinding of corn,
bags of Mexican corn meal, tropical fruits and vegetables.
(This demonstration might be given by students in home
CLOTHING. Museum staff members, dressed in native Mexi-
can costumes, presided at the various exhibits.
ARTS AND CRAFTS. A muscum Staff member, in Mexican cos-
tume, engaged in actual work on silver bowls and jewelry.
Exhibit of typical jade and silver jewelry from Taxco and
Mexico City. Students from a class in pottery-making at New
York University's division of industrial and vocational arts
demonstrated how to use a potter's wheel. Specimens of pot-
tery from Tlaquepaque, Oaxaca and Puebla were displayed.
( These demonstrations might be given by students in the arts
and crafts, vocational and manual training classes. )
MUSIC AND DANCE. A Mcxican boy and girl dressed in the
colonial costumes of the particular dances, performed the ja-
rabe and the jarango, dances dear to the hearts of all Mexicans.
MOTION PICTURES. All studcnts visiting the museum for this
special program saw the films "Arts and Crafts of Old Mexico,"
"Treasure Trove of Jade" and "Sky Dancers of Papantla."
PLANETARIUM. As part of the program all students went to
the Hayden Planetarium where they were shown the stars they
might expect to see if they lived in Mexico. (This part of the
program might be carried out by means of star charts, lantern
slides and pictorial demonstrations on the blackboard or with
2.SOUTH AND CENTRAL AMERICAN WEEK
FOOD. A demonstration of the way Bolivians cook kinoa, the
native cereal grain of that country. Exhibit of native fruits and
vegetables obtainable in the local market.
CLOTHING. Pupils from two elementary schools donned native
costumes from Guatemala and presented a "living" fashion
show for all the visiting children. The experience of wearing
costumes from another country gave their wearers an appreci-
ation for the styles and materials worn by a group of people
hitherto little known to them.
ARTS AND CRAFTS. Across from this fashion show a group of
silent fi*gures kept watch. Departing slightly from the all "hv-
ing" exhibits, the museum borrowed from one of New York's
large department stores a group which had formed a window
display. The scene depicted a Peruvian market, with manni-
kins, in native costumes, gathered together in the market place
as the natives do in that country. The costumes were brought
back by Carolyn Schnurer, a New York designer, from a trip
to South America during a search for inspiration for new de-
Peruvians in native costumes participate in a colorful traditional
signs in dresses and sportswear. Many a youthful student from
the city's art classes stood before this group and made sketch
after sketch adapting the odd-looking jackets and blouses to
the tastes of modem young Miss America.
MOTION PICTURES; MUSIC AND DANCE. After Seeing Several
films depicting life in South America, including one program
of Julien Bryan's splendid films on Bolivia and Uruguay, the
visit to South America concluded with a program of Bolivian
dances by a native Bolivian.
FOOD. A young Chinese woman member of the museum's edu-
cational staff demonstrated how to prepare a typical Chinese
dish of vegetables and pork and rice.
CLOTHING AND HOMES. An exhibit of sketches by two well-
known artists showed the life and peoples of the Philippines,
Sumatra, Java, Borneo and Japan. Students were able to visu-
alize clearly the different types of homes in that section of the
world and the way people live and dress.
ARTS AND CRAFTS. A demonstration in the use of the potter's
wheel. Exhibit of Chinese pottery. The highlight of this pro-
gram was the exhibit of Chinese, Balinese and Javanese pup-
pets and a puppet show. Behind a shadow screen, like those
set up in the towns of Java and Bali, danced beautifully carved
shadow puppets so dear to these peoples. Princes and prin-
cesses, dragons, fighting cocks, heroes and villains all moved
across the screen to the great delight of eagerly watching
young New Yorkers. (Pupils might well make their own pup-
pets for a demonstration of this type. )
MOTION PICTURES. "Charm and Costume" depicted cos-
tumes of China, and excerpts from films dealt with life in the
various islands of the Pacific.
All three programs were staged for a period of a week in
the foyer hall of the museum which accommodated large
groups of children at one time. Exhibits, similar to those de-
scribed, might be set up in cases in school corridors or in the
school library. Other parts of the programs such as dances or
puppet-shows might be given in classrooms or in the audi-
torium. The cooking demonstrations might be given either in
the special home economics room or as part of an assembly
program. The important point to keep in mind is that a pro-
gram of this type, concentrating on the life and culture of
some neighbor in another part of the world, brings that neigh-
bor closer to the pupils of your class.
XI. Enrichment oi Lan^ua^e Arts
Example ol Program
LITERATURE, AN IMPORTANT part of the curricu-
lum area of language arts, is humanized and vitalized by
audio-visual enrichment. In literature, as in social studies,
there is no place today for a school program in which the main
aims and objectives are techniques, skills and the mere storing
away of facts. Consideration is given, instead, to the student's
immediate personal enjoyment and to the lasting enrichment
of his life. There must be a combination of the student's appre-
ciation of the best in literature, the functional application of
techniques and skills, a combination of the dynamic experi-
ences of active life with the intellectual activities which for-
merly were of the first concern.
Today the classroom is a workshop, enabling boys and girls
to gain intimate knowledge through personal, active partici-
pation in varied, everyday, related experiences— both direct
and indirect. These develop in the student the power of adjust-
ment necessary to meet the ever-changing life-experiences of
today, and the power of self-guidance, self -learning, which is
the goal of all learning. This is vital for successful living, espe-
cially in these days of swiftly changing social, economic and
Again, there is no place today for a program of language arts
which is concerned wholly with a "mass of facts," and a
"dissection" of isolated masterpieces. Literature, like social
studies, is a human document which should be freely, infor-
mally, and happily discussed, enjoyed, and related to individ-
ual and group experiences in the school and outside. Through
audio-visual enrichment, the student is given varied and
meaningful experiences and adventures in hearing, seeing and
feeling in fields of human activity and accomplishment. He
relives past experiences and enjoys new ones through the sym-
pathetic sharing of the experiences of characters in the stories
made vivid and real through audio-visual aids.
This emphasis upon individual needs and choices, this per-
sonal enjoyment, does not mean that the backgrounds of prose
and poetry should be neglected. It does mean, however, that
they should be "introductory" to the enjoyment of the literary
selection itself. Often such backgrounds are quite necessary to
an understanding and appreciation of the literature they intro-
duce, and the seeing and hearing aids play an important role
in their presentation.
Audio-visual enrichment of the Language Arts program
stimulates the imagination and quickens the emotions through
a deeper appreciation of stories and their characters, and a
keener understanding of dramatic episodes which the students
"live" vicariously. The student's own experiences are broad-
ened through these seeing and hearing experiences, and there
is a sympathetic sharing of the many experiences presented
through this audio-visual appeal. Book illustrations have long
been effective in accomplishing this, and photographs, slides,
filmstrips, radio and films are more so. There is a better inte-
gration of the student's own personality by orienting him to
different life situations through vivid audio-visual portrayal.
Thus there is fostered in the student a greater power to think,
to feel, and to accomplish.
Personalities are brought to life through this enrichment,
and life-situations are vitalized. A better understanding of
story or play, its setting and the personages in it, all of which
without these aids may be quite outside the student's imme-
diate environment, produces a far greater feeling of concrete-
ness and reality. These concrete aids also help boys and girls
compare and judge related experiences, and receive new ones.
THE RADIO. Through the radio which may be found in
most homes and schools, many share the experiences which are
so vividly portrayed. The imagination of the listener creates
pictures in keeping with the audio appeal. There is, also, a
strong appeal to the emotions. The dramatized story is vital-
ized, the characters take on form and personality, as the lis-
tener identifies himself with one of them and with the action
of the plot. The dramatizations in the educational programs of
our broadcasting companies should be planned to increase
the interest of boys and girls in leisure time reading. Television
will greatly increase this interest. Broadcasts of the School of
the Air, for example, are planned to supplement classroom
work by bringing to the class important world events, people,
and excellent dramatic and musical talent. Thus they enlarge
the horizons of boys and girls and encourage them in volun-
The modern medium of television aids in bringing to life famous
persons in history and literature.
MOTION PICTURES, DRAMATICS. The motion pic-
ture is as effective in making literary personages live as it is in
bringing to life famous persons in history. Many times the
motion picture is the most potent of all the audio-visual aids
in bringing this about, when the story is not distorted as it
sometimes is for box-office appeal. The dramatization of
literary subjects is valuable because of continuity in vivid
unfolding of plot, convincingly human characters, examples
of voice and diction, and enrichment of vocabulary. Drama-
tizations of some of the stories recommended in the school
curriculum are available in the 16 mm. films. The fee for their
use is prohibitive for many smaller schools but parent commit-
tees are often organized to take care of that problem. Some
of the films deal with stories by Shakespeare, Dickens, Kip-
ling, Longfellow, Mark Twain and Washington Irving.
SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF AIDS.
There are other situations when the combination of the
motion picture with carefully selected stereopticon or koda-
chrome slides, followed by a Treasure Trip, is what the teacher
feels is required to make story, book, or play yield to boys and
girls its full meaning. The teacher must decide which form of
audio-visual material, or which combination, is most effective.
Personal selection is important, for only the teacher who
is familiar with the material to be presented, and the educa-
tional aims to be accomplished, can effectively select which
aids shall be used.
A Shakespearean drama unfolds on an Elizabethan stage.
TO SHAKESPEARE'S PLAY WITH
QUEEN BESS AND HER COURTIERS
This program has an introduction to be illustrated with
stereopticon slides which may be borrowed from the school
service lending collections of museums, from collections made
by the boards of education of various cities and towns, and
from libraries in state and city institutions. They may be rented
from educational and commercial companies.
If slides are not available, and the school has an opaque pro-
jector, book illustrations, photographs, and postcards illustra-
tive of the period and story may be used most effectively.
If neither sHde * nor opaque projector is available, an ex-
hibition of mounted photographs and postcards, made avail-
able to classrooms before the program, will be helpful.
These illustrations make the introduction vivid, with the
combination of visual and auditory appeal, and often that of
touch when the illustrations seem to be three-dimensional.
The story should be told rather than read, when possible,
and presented vividly in costume if a suitable costume can be
procured. The parts should be portrayed with human and
Any possible Treasure Trip to see models, paintings, armor,
tapestries of that period, doubles the effectiveness of the
INTRODUCTION "LEADING INTO" THE STORY
Architecture, English, Renaissance. London before the
Great Fire— Old London Bridge Model ( London Museum )
The sixteenth century. Queen Elizabeth's century, was one
of greatness. In some ways, it was the most significant in
English history, and has influenced the world. It marked the
change from the Middle Ages to the modern world. Compe-
tition entered work and the individual stepped from the
crowd. England was supreme. Queen Elizabeth's brave Sea
* The stereopticon slides listed here are from the Lending Collections, Metro-
politan Museum of Art.
Kings had most effectively "singed King Philip's beard." King
Philip of Spain found that he could no longer boast that he
was Master of the Seas. Queen Elizabeth's Sea Kings— Sir
Francis Drake, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir John Hawkins, had
made her Queen of the Seas. The great Spanish Armada, which
King Philip had boasted was invincible, was conquered. Eng-
land ruled supreme on both land and sea.
Frints, Engravings, Zundt. Portrait of Sir Francis Drake
( London, British Museum )
Frints, Engravings, Leu. Portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh
(London, British Museum)
Frints, Engravings, Fine, J. S. Spanish Armada
It was an age of great men, not only brave sailors, soldiers,
and gallant courtiers, but fine writers, poets, actors, and artists.
Architecture, English, Renaissance. Fenshurst Castle
Mingled with the points of gables and the perpendicular
lines of tall chimneys reminiscent of the Middle Ages, were
Manners and Customs, Domestic, English, XVI Century.
the square-headed windows and doorways of the new style in
architecture. Classic designs, borrowed from the Greeks and
the Romans, were introduced into the wood-carving. Slender
columns and patterned capitals, scroll and leaf designs which
had come in with the new style from Italy, the Renaissance,
were in use. There was a riot of carving done with exquisite
Moreton Old Hall— a surviving example of English Renaissance
The great hall, formerly with a roof of its own, was incor-
porated as a part of the house which was often shaped like the
capital letter E in honor of Elizabeth, with many rooms built
around two inner courts.
Architecture, English, Renaissance. Pitchford Hall, Ex-
Manners and Customs, Domestic, English, XVI Century.
An Elizabethan Family in Front of Their House
The windows, symmetrically arranged, made it difficult in
the estimation of some of the folk of the time— Lord Bacon
among them— to keep away from the drafts or the sun! Oriel
windows were introduced, like bow windows, built out from
the wall and resting on brackets.
Architecture, English, Renaissance. Hardwick Hall, Inte-
Costumes reflected the changes in architecture, the pointed
forms giving way to rounded, though some of the old pointed
style was still used. The circular stone staircases changed to
the beautifully carved wooden ones which were more accom-
modating to the long, wide, stiff skirts, the ungainly farthin-
gales! Bodices were stiff and pointed, embroidered with jewels.
The ruffs, of Spanish origin, grew larger and stiffer, until
finally large, fan-like collars developed.
Painting, Geeraerts, M. Portrait of Elizabeth, Hardwick Hall
The armor of the time followed the pointed doublet, and the
engraved designs imitated the gold and silver braid which
decorated the doublets.
Arms— Armor, English, XVI Century Suit of Armor which
belonged to Sir James Scudaniore, Gentleman, usher at the
Court of Queen Elizabeth (New York City, Metropolitan
Museum of Art )
The foremost man of the time was one William Shakespeare,
the greatest writer of plays of that time and of all times.
Painting, Burbage, Richard. Portrait of Shakespeare ( Lon-
don, National Gallery )
In quaint and gentle Stratford-town, on the banks of the
river Avon, young Will Shakespeare had a good background
for the beauties of his later writing.
Architecture, English, Renaissance. Stratford
Through a garden of rich, purple flowers in the midst of cool
Shakespeare's house in Stratford-on-Avon. Note the many small-
green, we may still enter Ann Hathaway's thatched cottage in
Shottery, not far away.
Ar chit e dure, English, Renaissance. Shottery, Ann Hatha-
way s Cottage
Shakespeare's two-storied house made of wooden beams, its
roof thatched, its gables steep, its black beams on the outside
checkering the walls into squares and triangles, dormer win-
dows adding to its charm, is again an example of the mingling
of the old and the new.
Architecture, English, Renaissance. Henley Street, Shake-
But shall we not visit, first, a theater of this time?
Dr awing, De Witt. Swan Theatre, 1593, Interior
It is summer, and a bright flag is waving from the turret to
announce that the play is about to begin at three o'clock in
Architecture, English, Renaissance. Fortune Theatre,
In a moment, three trumpet-blasts will proclaim that the
performance is starting. So, let us hasten to enter the circular
building, its roof the cloudless blue sky except for the stage,
passages and galleries. In the summer theater, the pit, or yard,
where many people are gathering, is always open to the sky.
Everywhere there are gay colors, for the Londoners have
come in holiday array, and are whiling away the time before
the play begins by eating nuts and apples, and by drinking ale.
In front of us is the stage, coming well out into the pit,
and open between the columns at the sides so that the more
favored spectators in the boxes may see all that is taking place.
There is no curtain, no scenery. The playgoers of Queen Eliza-
beth's time had much better imaginations than we have!
Manners and Customs, Domestic, English. An Elizabethan
The name of the play is hung out on a placard, and the
prologue appears, robed in black velvet. With many bows he
tells what is going to take place, begging for the good will of
the audience. Right before our eyes, the "properties," such as
rocks, branches of trees, tables, chairs, are put in place, as one
scene follows another without pause.
The stage, with the aid of the vivid imaginations of the
spectators, is the throne-room of a palace, dense woods, or the
waves of the sea, the actors moving from one "scene" to an-
other. The upper part of the stage in the rear is useful in bal-
cony scenes such as in Romeo and Juliet. The actors, dressed
in the costumes of their own day, even though they may be
representing a far earlier time, enter through the curtains at
the rear of the stage. All parts are played by men or boys. The
placard has just been put up informing the audience that they
are looking upon a forest.
Now that we have had a glimpse of what is taking place, we
will steal away, and return with members of the royal court,
when Her Majesty appears!
Painting, Geeraerts, M. Visit of Queen Elizabeth to Black-
friars. ( Sherborne Castle )
" *Yo! Ho! And the Spanish Main,'
Sang the salt sea waves of old.
The Sea Kings bold for Queen and gold
Ploughed our turbulent plain/
Yo! Ho! for good Queen Bess
They braved the Spanish Main.
Painting, Heere, Lucas de. Portrait of Queen Elizabeth.
( New Haven, Yale University )
"The whip of the gale as it lashes the sail,
In the storm as it rises again.
Yo! Ho! These Sea Kings bold,
Brave and daring and strong;
With cutlasses long they righted the wrong—
Yo! Ho! And the Spanish Main!"
Thus sang a bronzed sailor, a broad felt hat set jauntily upon
his rough black hair, big golden ear-rings gleaming in the
afternoon's sun, and scarlet trousers reaching barely to his
Fainting, Millais. Boyhood of Walter Raleigh (London,
"Up with you, now!*' he commanded the two lads who had
been drinking in each word of his sea stories. "Shake the sand
from your clothes, and we'll be on our way. 'Tis so long since
I have walked on land, I have not my land legs' yet. Busy I
have been with helping Captain Drake, Sir Francis as now he
will be called since he has been knighted in return for his serv-
ices by no other than Her Majesty, good Queen Bess. 'The
Dragon' with his little ships swept down upon King Philip's
castle-like galleons and drove them from our shores. Queen
Painting, Lawrence. Kiiighting of Sir Walter Raleigh. (Lon-
don, House of Parliament )
Bess now rules, the sovereign of the sea as well as of the land.
Painting, Zuccaro, Attributed to. Portrait of Queen Eliza-
And I, lads, am right glad I was in the thick of it, though I
would have returned before this to Slough, a prettier village
never was, had I not shipped again with Sir Francis. But now
here I am, my pockets bulging with fine silks for thy mother,
Master Ned, a necklace for young Prue, and a box of rare wood
for our old grandam." ( Lights— As story continues )
There was great rejoicing that night in the little village of
Slough at the return of one who had been gone from them so
Queen Elizabeth and her courtiers live again in this impersonation
developed by elementary school pupils after hearing a story of
Queen Bess and the England of her time.
long and who had helped to rid their land and its surrounding
seas of the dreaded Spanish foe. Most of the villagers, old and
young, gathered at the Royal Arms, where there was much
rejoicing and merrymaking as he who had sailed with the
famed hero, Francis Drake, told his adventures.
Dick, Ned, and Prudence sat by themselves, apart, in a
dusky corner which the candle-light of the old tavern but
poorly lighted. But they could hear just as well, with their ears
attuned to every adventure which had befallen "The Dragon's"
ship, "The Golden Hind," and those who so bravely adven-
tured in it.
Dick and Prue were very proud of their brother. In their
eyes he was just as great a hero as "The Dragon" himself, every
bit. Ned was proud of him, too, but he was more proud of his
father, an actor in the Queen's Players who performed their
plays in the different villages and towns through which they
passed. They hoped to receive the honor of playing in London
before the Queen at Her Majesty's request. It was enough to
make any boy proud, to have a father in that troupe. Ned was
very glad they happened to be in Slough on the night when
Dick's sailor brother came home.
"I'd like to have been there when Jack Drake, page to the
famous captain who now is not only Admiral of Her Majesty's
fleet but her honored Knight, first caught sight of the Spanish
Treasure Ship they were looking for! He won the golden chain
promised by his master!" Thus spoke young Mistress Prue.
"And I, when they sailed upon the vast unknown waters of
the South Sea, or when they looked out upon both seas. Most
of all rd like to have been there when they sailed around the
world. What could be more wonderful, Ned, than to be the
first Englishman to sail around this world on which we live?"
breathed Dick rapturously.
Ned nodded. Then he looked very earnest as he said rather
low, for it was a strange thing to be saying on that night of all
nights with Dick's sailor brother just returned from his adven-
tures, "If I could have my choice, Dick, I would be a player
like my Father, and act my plays before our Queen and her
court. That's what I would do! And," here Ned hesitated a bit,
for he was about to tell something which had been in his in-
most heart for some time but which never before had he told
even to his player-father, his greatest chum.
"I would one day meet Master Will Shakespeare of Strat-
ford who has won fame for himself in London Town by writ-
ing verses and turning them into plays which bring him great
praise from Her Majesty, our Queen. My father says he is the
most talked-of man in London, and all words are to his praise.
And my Father knows. He has seen this Will Shakespeare
many a time, and once watched him play before the Queen.
She dropped her glove near him while walking across the
stage to her place of honor. He kept his part of king in the
play, picked up her glove, and handed it to her with a bow
which greatly pleased her. Such beautiful thoughts he puts
into words, such as you never dreamed. Here are some of them,
the talk of London Town, methinks.
'How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music
Creep in our ears; soft stillness and the night
Become the touches of sweet harmony.
Sit, Jessica. Look, how the floor of heaven
Is thick inlaid with patines of bright gold;
Come, ho, and wake Diana with a hymn;
And draw her home with music' " *
" Tis beautiful," breathed Prue, starry-eyed. "I, too, would
like to meet this writer-actor. Master Will Shakespeare.
Wouldn't you, Dick?"
Dick nodded, rather vague and bewildered. Fancy being
able to say all those high sounding words! He admitted to him-
self that they were beautiful, but in his opinion they would
have been more beautiful if they had only been about the sea!
"Yol Ho! And the Spanish Main!" his sailor brother had been
singing. He could better understand those words.
"Thus Sir Francis and the other brave Sea Kings proved
there is a Queen of the seas as well as a King," the returned
seaman was boasting, and that with right good cause. "Where
now are the galleons of Spain? God save the fair and brave
Elizabeth, our Queen, Mistress over land and sea!"
All glasses were right quickly and loyally raised, and a rous-
ing cheer filled the little tavern so completely given over to
* From Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice."
merrymaking. But before the sailor could go on with his tales
which held spellbound his wide-eyed, eager listeners, a
courtier clad in velvet cape and broad plumed hat, his ruflF
lace-edged, thrust open the door. "In the Queen's name!" he
cried. "What with all this merrymaking within there was no
hearing my knocking without. Her Majesty is here! On journey
to the castle of a lord not far distant, the wheel of her royal
carriage was lost just outside of Slough. Make room for Her
Such a commotion filled the little tavern of the Royal Arms!
Such excitement shook the village of Slough! Torches sent
forth their flares, brightening the quaint little streets bordered
by gabled houses set in the midst of gardens blooming with
purple flowers. Trumpets rent the stillness, as the royal pro-
cession drew near. Courtiers in gold-embroidered velvet, fine
pleated ruffs, wide plumed hats, gold-hilted swords by their
sides, gave orders for the Queen's entertainment. One, a tall
noble, drew a velvet cape more closely around the Queen as
he rode by her side, carefully guiding her horse. Gaily he chat-
tered with Her Majesty, whose blue eyes sparkled and whose
auburn hair, jewel decorated, twinkled with changing lights as
she peered this way and that. Truly, this adventure was much
to her liking.
" 'Tis Sir Water Raleigh!" exclaimed the excited Ned who
had run to his father's side. "My father says so! He is the one
they were telling of the other night. He is the hero I was tell-
ing you of but the other day, my sweet Prue, the knight who
SO gallantly served his Queen. Dost remember?"
"Nay, and if I do, good lad, tell me once again ere they come
inside, an' thou wilt/'
"He, too, has always loved the sea, my good friend Prue,"
began Ned as they watched the gorgeous procession draw up
at the tavern door. "Was not Master Walter, Sir Walter now.
The versatile Elizabethan stage balcony was not limited in use to
Romeo and Juliet. Frequently it was a stage in itself.
a boy living close to the sea in Devon? He heard all the brave
tales of Sir John Hawkins and Sir .Francis Drake who ad-
ventured upon the strange seas, and longed to be with them.
So he manned a ship to help defeat the dread Spanish foe.
More than that he sent colonies to the New World across the
great Western Ocean for his Queen. One of them is named
Virginia in honor of Her Majesty, the Virgin Queen. By her
own hand he was knighted even as thy brother's master, Sir
Francis Drake of the 'Golden Hind'. And this is the way it
"One showery day, when clouds seemed full eager to chase
the sun away, the Queen went walking from her palace. All
her wise counsellors and courtiers, her gay and splendid court
ladies, her cavaliers, followed her. Jewels gleamed from her
red hair as they do on this night. Mayhap, my good Dick, some
of these very jewels were in the Spanish ships your bold sea-
man brother helped 'The Dragon to capture. No doubt her
great collar of cobwebby lace rose high above her head as it
does now. Jewels gleamed over almost every inch of her, even
upon her little shoes as we can plainly see in the torch light.
"A heavy shower had left a large muddy place directly in
her path, though the sun, reappearing, had caused it to sparkle.
" *My shoes will take ill to the mud,' laughed the Queen, so
they tell the tale, and she held up her wide jewelled skirt, not
liking to venture. 'And your pretty feet as well,' said a courtier
with a deep bow, hoping, methinks, to receive favor from the
Queen because of his gallant speech. But Master Raleigh, no
dealer in pretty words without gallant deeds, sprang forward
on the instant and spread his embroidered velvet cape over
the muddy place before his Queen.
" 'Well hast thou served thy Queen,' declared Her Majesty,
much pleased as she tripped lightly across the velvet bridge,
1 shall reward thy courtesy for thou art truly a gallant knight/
"Sir Walter she made him and she likes full well to keep him
by her side, making him Captain of the Queen's Guard, Lord
Lieutenant of Cornwall, and Vice Admiral of Devon! Not
only is Sir Walter brave and bold, as brave as Sir Francis, but
he has a ready wit and is a maker of pretty verses which help
Her Majesty pass pleasantly many an hour. But look you, Dick
and sweet Prue, such jealous glances rest upon him from the
other courtiers. Methinks trouble will be brewing in the court
for 'tis said that the head of the Queen's favorite is never long
safe. But come, let us go again to our corner where we can
see clearly what takes place, for Her Majesty is about to enter
our tavern. Truly, Slough and the Royal Arms will long be
remembered as the place where her Majesty, Queen Bess,
stopped one night when the wheel from her royal carriage was
It was a most wonderful evening. There was the sparkle of
jewels, the flashing of swords in the torch and candle light,
witty sayings and even hearty laughter for the Queen was in
the best of humor over affairs both at home and abroad. Was
she not the acknowledged mistress of the land and the sea?
Had she not bold Sea Kings who had filled her coffers from the
Spanish treasure ships and protected her from her arch enemy,
King PhiHp of Spain? What other sovereign had a more bril-
hant court, more loyal subjects? One toast followed another,
and the tavern-master quite outdid himself in the matter of
cooking. Savory odors filled the tavern room and brought a
pang of hunger for a taste of the roasts and the pasties even
to those who had supped before.
Ned's cup of happiness was filled to overflowing. Her
Majesty had called for the Queen's Players and blessed her
good fortune that they were in Slough. She applauded the
dancing, the music, the acting, the poem which Ned's father
recited hailing her as Queen of the Seas and the Land. Bells
jingled, pipes played, drums throbbed, feet twinkled, nymphs
danced amidst the green, weaving garlands of flowers. When
the Goddess of Beauty appeared and with most pleasing words
handed her sceptre of beauty to Queen Bess, the applause
could have been heard as far away as Maidenhead.
Then it was that Her Majesty sent for the leader, the chief
actor, Ned's father. Ned's heart was near to bursting with
pride when he heard her say, "Thou dost please me well,
sirrah, and I would have thee and thy company perform be-
fore me in London. Nay, more, I would have thee meet Master
Will Shakespeare, the best poet and play-writer in all Eng-
land. Master Shakespeare is an actor as well, and mayhap it
would please thee and thy company to see one of his new
plays such as hold the court and their Queen spellbound. He
is with the Lord Chamberlain's Company in London now,
writing plays with his ready pen and acting in them, too. I
will recommend thee to him for this company. Thou hast done
so well, sirrah, that mayhap thou wilt one day be made
'Master of the Revels' at court. There thy gift would have full
play in preparing masques, plays, and pageants. Await on me
in London a week hence."
"To think on it!" exclaimed Prue, "thy dream has really
come true. Thou wilt see Master Will Shakespeare. Pray re-
member, Ned, all about the playhouse and the actors and the
costumes that they wear. Dick and I will be watching for thy
safe return, an' thou tell us not all about London Town it will
go hard with thee, sirrah!"
Dick was glad that his playfellow was to be so honored but
he would have liked to go along, too. "Never you mind, my
sweet duck, you shall go with me to London when next I go
to meet my master on the 'Golden Hind'," comforted his
Ned was all eyes and ears in London. Narrow streets packed
close with wooden houses and shops displaying their beckon-
ing wares, Saint Paul's towering majestic and dignified towards
the sky, London Bridge supported by great arches, and a
multitude of strange boats in the River Thames, all fascinated
"Dick would like to be looking at them," thought Ned, a
pang of homesickness shaking him even in the midst of such
absorbing sights as the city offered. There were most wonder-
ful big houses, so different from the little gabled cottages in
Slough, some of them built in the shape of the letter E in honor
of Elizabeth, the Queen, with ever so many square-topped
windows one right underneath the other, all seeming to peer
down at him.
"Methinks it must be too warm in the hot sunshine within,"
muttered Ned, "and overly cold when the winter winds are
The great event at last arrived, though it had seemed to the
eager Ned as if it never would. They had actually entered
the big circular theater on the bankside of the river. A con-
fused mass of gay colors met Ned's eyes, and a medley of
sound, laughter, talking, music, drummed upon his ears.
Everyone was merry, out for a good time. From the pit of the
house Ned looked up at the blue of the mid-afternoon sky, at
the flag waving from the turret to tell all folk that there would
be a performance that afternoon. He glanced at the stage.
"The Venetian Comedy", he read from the placard. That
sounded good. He was glad that there would be some laughter
in it. That was why he liked his father's plays and pageants.
There were few tears in them, and Ned thought, as did Prue
and Dick, that laughter was far better than tears.
Ned felt rather sorry for all the people standing in the pit
of the house before the stage, as he took the seat offered him
by his father's side in one of the boxes to the left of the stage.
But they seemed to be having a right jolly time— chatting,
drinking, and eating. He wouldn't mind a nut or two, himself.
All around him in the boxes, to the right of the stage as well
as the left, were such gorgeous ladies and splendid cavaliers
that Ned was sure they were of the court.
"Watch for Her Majesty/' whispered his father. "She will
be here soon, lad. What think ye, my sweet Ned, she said to
me this very day? That we may see the great Master Will
Shakespeare after his play is through. 'Tis an honor, mind you,
lad, that your father and you are receiving!"
Ned pressed his father's hand and sat as close as he could
Prologue and placard draw the attention of those in the pit to the
presentation of a Shakespearean play.
to his side. Mayhap one day his own actor-father would be
upon that very stage, doing his part before the Queen. Aye,
that was a thought to juggle with!
Of a sudden there was a great commotion. "Surely the
Queen is coming!" thought Ned. But 'twas only a pickpocket
caught and tied to a post on the stage for all eyes to gaze at
and for folk to pelt with apples if they were good marksmen.
A sudden blare of trumpets and cries of "Her Majesty,
Queen of Merry England!" proclaimed that she was being
led to her seat of honor upon the platform, itself. Ned recog-
nized some of the courtiers he had seen that night at the Royal
Arms. There was one who had not been at the Queen's side
then but who claimed royal attention now. He was good to
look upon, his eyes bright and sparkling, his chin ending in
the same little pointed beard that Sir Walter and Sir Francis
and all the courtiers boasted. He seemed to be bubbling over
with energy. A velvet cape hung well back upon his shoulders
over his embroidered doublet, and a crisply pleated ruff
framed his eager face. His plumed hat was held carelessly in
one hand while with the other he called Her Majesty's atten-
tion to certain things of interest upon the stage.
The play progressed. Ned sat breathless in his chair, no
longer in London Town but with the characters upon the
stage, in the colorful city of Venice.
Hark! There were the very words his father had taught him
and he loved so well, words which had always made beautiful
pictures as he heard his father say them.
*How sweet the moonlight sleeps upon this bank!
Here will we sit, and let the sounds of music
Creep in our ears; soft stillness and the night
Become the touches of sweet harmony/
Now he was seeing enacted the very play of Master Shake-
speare from which those words came! Ned was almost over-
whelmed in his delight, so much so that he did not see his
father rise and bow as some one approached him. Nor did he
notice his father's delighted face or hear the whispered words,
until he heard his own name spoken.
"Master Ned," a kind strange voice was saying, "your father
tells me you came here on purpose to see me. I am honored,
sweet lad. Grow up with this same love of the stage with which
your good father has endowed thee, and mayhap you will be
acting in one of my plays before the Queen as your good father
will soon be doing."
Ned gasped. 'Twas the kind-faced courtier who had been
seated by her Majesty. He had come to their box on purpose
to speak to them. Truly Queen Bess was very kind to send
him, for it must be Master Will Shakespeare, himself! Ned
could only bow and look up at the great writer and actor with
"One day you must come to Stratford, lad, and see my son
Hammet of about your own age, and my sweet mouse, Judith.
A good time I warrant you would all have in the fields on both
sides of the river, all velvety green and blossoming with
posies. On a May Day you shall come with your father when
the Queen's Players will entertain us with dances and masques.
Good Master Player, I shall see you and your sweet lad again
for soon you will be with me in the Lord Chamberlain's Com-
pany. Fare-you-well, now, good friends. Her Majesty is
It seemed to Ned as if he could not wait to get back to
Slough, happy as he had been in London Town. So much he
had to tell. To think that his father was to receive a coat-of-
arms and be able to have "Gentleman" put after his name!
How he would talk of his meeting with Master Will Shake-
speare! Dick and Prue would see him, too, and enjoy his plays
when they moved to London Town.
1. Enricnment oi tne Sciences
Examples oi Programs
IT IS MOST ESSENTIAL today that the sciences be
made a Hving part of every school curriculum. World events,
news items, current films, radio programs, all include an in-
creasing number of references to work done in the field of
science, and preparation for citizenship in the world demands
a knowledge of basic scientific information.
Even before World War II called upon the talents and
skills of scientists to work for mankind in general, the increas-
ing importance of science in our daily life had become ap-
parent. Whereas the student of yesterday had little need to
draw upon an understanding of chemistry, biology, physics,
electronics or radio theory, the student of today accepts these
subjects and makes them a part of his everyday life. It is desir-
able that he do this, for the modern world is being built upon
products conceived and developed in the laboratories. This
subject area in the curriculum should very definitely be made
real to students of all grades through utilization of audio-
Probably one reason that less emphasis was formerly placed
upon the importance of the sciences in the elementary and
high school curricula was due to the fact that these subjects
were considered to be of value only for the student who
contemplated a career as a chemist, a doctor, an engineer, or
a professional research worker.
Today, every child accepts radio as part of the equipment
of living and wants to know the principles underlying the con-
struction and operation of a radio set. The airplane is an ac-
cepted means of modern transportation, and your school boy
or girl wants to know what keeps a plane aloft and in flight.
Plastic materials are everyday commodities, but the boy and
girl of today wants to know how they are prepared and how
they should be used. It is essential that the modern school
child be equipped with sufiicient fundamental, basic, scien-
tific information to understand this world in which he lives.
This understanding must include a general knowledge of the
sciences as well as of the social studies, arts, languages and
Methods and techniques for the presentation of the science
subjects need vitalizing. Too much emphasis has been placed
on the learning of formulas and not enough emphasis placed on
practical adaptations of these same formulas. The effective
utilization of audio-visual teaching materials is necessary if
laboratory experiments are to be interpreted in terms of human
situations. The mathematical formulas which produce energy
are of no value if the energy produced is not of use to man in
Many of the audio- visual aids used in the classroom are the
result of the application of modern scientific principles. There-
fore, these same aids can be made of value in vitalizing a study
of these same principles. A simple explanation of the princi-
ples of optics and their relation to a motion picture projector
will often prove valuable as a means of increasing appreciation
of modern equipment. This same procedure may be applied to
any of the various machines used in this work. An understand-
ing and an appreciation of the role played by equipment should
be one aim if these aids are to be made part of the school
A lesson in physics will become real to the student who has
Visual aids are very important in science studies. Here a high
school biology student in Tomball, Texas, examines microbes with
seen a film depicting the processing of uranium; a lesson in
modern chemistry will take on meaning to the student who has
seen a film showing the role of plastics in the modern world;
a chemical formula which has been a mere compilation of
symbols and numbers may suddenly become clear to the visu-
ally-minded student when he sees this same formula illustrated
on a filmstrip; the processing of steel takes on new life and
vigor to the student who has heard a recording of the sounds
in a steel mill. Scientific experimentation and study have given
us so many of the materials which we use in the classroom. We
should give back to the study of these sciences the products
which they have helped to create.
Stories and accounts of the lives and works of world-famous
scientists should be made a part of a study of any one of the
sciences. The reading of the life of George Washington Carver
or Marie Curie provides the student with information which
enables him to form a mental picture of these persons and
their places in the world of science. Then, if motion pictures,
filmstrips, lantern slides or a combination of these aids, dealing
with the same subjects and people, are shown to him, the vis-
ual medium enables him to see the living personalities. He
sees the people and events of the world of science as he has
seen the people and events of history, literature and art.
It is important that the work of individual scientists be made
real to the child, in order that he gain an appreciation not only
of these individuals but also of the part that he himself may
take if he chooses to work in these same fields.
The use of audio-visual aids in the teaching of the sciences
will help to break down rigid subject barriers which have long
existed. For instance, the motion picture just mentioned deal-
ing with the life of Carver will show how he drew upon a
knowledge of chemistry, biology, physics and other subjects.
The film showing how modern plastic materials are made will
illustrate how chemistry and physics are combined. Still an-
other film dealing with the pasteurization of milk may be used
to illustrate principles of biology, chemistry and scientific
dairying. It is to be hoped that many films will soon be made
to demonstrate how the factual information learned in the
different sciences can all help to produce new materials, new
products, new foods, new methods of agriculture. The factual
content taught in one branch of the sciences is often the basis
for further study in another science. The use of many types of
audio- visual aids will help emphasize this connection. Teach-
ers should try to select and use audio-visual aids which will
bring out this point and at the same time clarify and vitalize
the subject matter itself so that it takes on real value to the
MOTION PICTURES, LANTERN SLIDES AND
FILMSTRIPS. As has been pointed out in the preceding
section, the motion picture can be made a very eflFective aid
in the teaching of any of the sciences. The lantern slide and
filmstrip should also be included among the aids used in teach-
ing these same subjects. In the case of both the lantern slide
and the filmstrip, the image or picture shown may be held on
the screen for a longer period than is possible with the motion
picture. This is a distinct advantage in science classes, where
the pupil must learn recognition of objects, such as the parts
of a flower, anatomical structure, or the parts of a dynamo or
engine. Furthermore, the teacher herself controls the speed
at which lantern slides or filmstrips are changed or moved.
This adds to their value in these classes, for detailed study of
figures and diagrams is necessary.
Pupil-made motion pictures, lantern slides and filmstrips
are especially valuable for use in science classes. Principles
learned in chemistry and physics classes become of practical
value in the making of these aids. Moreover, it is well for teach-
ers to make up sets of slides showing diagrams, formulas, equa-
tions and processes. These slides, shown on the screen while
some experiment is in process, will help to keep before the
pupils a picture of the principles underlying whatever experi-
ment they are perfoiming. These principles might otherwise
be temporarily forgotten in the thrill of performing an actual
RADIO AND TELEVISION. Radio and television are
both outstanding examples of how science has contributed to
modern life. They may be effectively used in two ways in the
school program. In the first instance, factual information con-
cerning the construction and operation of both radio and tele-
vision sets may constitute the subject matter of a lesson. In
the second instance radio and television may be the media
through which additional information on many subjects is
brought to the children. It should be as much a part of the
classroom procedure for science classes to listen to the broad-
casting of scientific meetings and programs as for social studies
classes to listen to political meetings. As television becomes
more universally available, it may well be possible for science
classes to observe demonstrations and become familiar with
the techniques of famous scientists.
The winner of the Soap Box Derby is televised for telecasting to
youthful fans— thus increasing the interest of budding engineers.
EXPERIMENTS AND DEMONSTRATIONS. The
demonstration-experiment technique has long been consid-
ered a regular feature in the teaching of the sciences. Such
demonstrations, however, should not become mere routine.
Science is bringing new materials, new foods, new drugs, new
products into our lives. Examples of these contributions should
be brought to class wherever possible (or lantern slides or
films illustrating these new materials should be shown ) . Dio-
ramas, flat prints, and any of the other audio-visual aids should
be used in the science classes to stimulate interest in the sub-
ject under immediate discussion. It is important to show the
interdependence of the various sciences and the other subjects
included in the school curriculum. We should use the same
types of teaching aids that are used in the other classes, or we
will continue to lean upon memorization and experimentation
as the only methods to use in teaching the sciences.
SCHOOL JOURNEYS AND TREASURE TRIPS. If
the treasure trip may be said to make objects and peoples
come alive for the social studies, it is equally true that it does
the same for the sciences. A trip to a glass-making factory, a
foundry, a testing laboratory, will clothe an otherwise drab
and routine science lesson with life and reality. The student
who has watched the process of pasteurizing milk will have
a clear picture of what actually takes place in a modern dairy.
The sciences deal with concrete, definite subject material.
Therefore, any teaching aid which helps to make a subject
concrete and definite for the pupil should be utilized. When-
ever possible science classes should be taken to museums, fac-
tories, laboratories, and other places where they may observe
actual scientific specimens and processes.
SELECTION AND COMBINATION OF AIDS. It is
impossible to lay down any rules or formulas for the most
effective audio-visual aids to be used in teaching any of the
sciences. Modern science is cooperating to make the modern
world. Thus we can only repeat that the sensory teaching aid
or combination of aids which best illustrates and vitalizes the
subject under consideration is the best aid to use for that sub-
ject. Science teachers should beware of establishing routine
practices and procedures to illustrate basic principles. Basic
principles are likely to be employed in new combinations— and
the alert science teacher will use the aids which most clearly
show these changes and adaptations.
Examples of Programs
Egbert, the mechanical man at the Frankhn Institute in Philadel-
phia, greets feminine admirers.
It has frequently been said that 4:he social studies benefited
most from the use of audio-visual materials, and that most of
the materials now available for classroom use were appropri-
ate only for this subject area. It is true that this was the situa-
tion until quite recently. But the current interest of youth of
school age in radio, television, electronics, and the other sci-
ences has made it necessary to provide materials which will
be of value in teaching these subjects in the classroom.
At the Franklin Institute in Philadelphia the staff has out-
lined a number of programs, which although planned as radio
programs, are particularly well suited for classroom use even
when the radio section of the program is omitted. To para-
phrase the report of the Director of Education at the Insti-
tute,* the radio program was directed toward the elementary
schools, adopting the theme "Science Is Fun." It was broadcast
every Monday afternoon at 2:15 p.m. over Station WFIL for
the purpose of dramatizing events of science and highlighting
the offerings at the museum and planetarium. Egbert, the
famous mechanical man, a feature of the Institute, was brought
to life in the broadcasts and children took part in the program.
A teachers' manual, containing synopses, suggested activities,
vocabularies and booklists, was sent to every teacher of grades
three to six in Philadelphia and the surrounding area. An eval-
uation committee visited classrooms to watch pupil reactions
to the progi'ams and to make suggestions to teachers. A similar
series is now being prepared for the high school level. Films
listed in the programs are available only to the schools of Phila-
* The project was suggested by Miss Gertrude Golden, District Superintend-
ent, Philadelphia Public Schools. It was carried out by a steering committee
under the chairmanship of Armand Spitz, Director of Education, The Frank-
lin Institute, with Miss Ruth Weir Miller, Radio Assistant, Philadelphia Public
Schools, in charge of the project.
delphia, but if other teachers desire to use them, information
as to where to secure them may be obtained by writing to the
Department of Education, The Frankhn Institute, Philadel-
phia, Pennsylvania. Transcriptions of the programs were also
made for use in Philadelphia schools, and it is to be hoped that
these transcriptions will soon be available to schools in other
parts of the country.
THE STORY. Man first was limited in his knowledge of the
world to that portion which he could see, but he soon began to
travel away from home on foot in search of food and for other
purposes. The developnient of methods of carrying himself, his
family and his possessions marks the beginning of the science
of transportation. The invention of the wheel was the first step
which made possible a traveling civilization and brought
about a sharing of the cultures of many parts of the world.
Egbert will tell about the construction of the Pyramids with
the moving of weights on rollers, and will trace the wheel up
to the present time.
let's LEARN NEW WORDS
Horseless buggy Pharaoh tomb Khufu pyramid
( Fay-roh ) ( Koo-f oo )
SET THE SCENE
Talk about all kinds of vehicles on wheels, past and present.
Create a bulletin board display showing progress of transpor-
tation on wheels.
Let class contribute what they know about early use of wheels.
( Indians, Chinese, etc. )
Study about Egypt and the Pyramids.
Discuss modern use of "rollers'* to move heavy machinery, etc.
Make a class scrapbook ( or individual ones ) showing progress
Reports on early cars, trains, carts, chariots, etc.
LET S LISTEN FOR
1. How the roller lightened the labor for men.
2. Why the building of the Pyramids was such slow work.
3. What animals were used for early transportation.
4. What kind of transportation poor people used.
5. Why coaches were uncomfortable.
WHAT EVERY CHILD WILL WANT TO KNOW
QUESTION: What are some familiar uses of the wheel in addi-
tion to moving vehicles?
answer: Steering wheel, pulley, fishing reel, gears in clocks
TRY IT YOURSELF: EXPERIMENT
Build a miniature "sand table" pyramid under construction
with blocks on rollers— partially built pyramids, etc.
Experiment with round objects such as pencils, rolHng books
over the desk, to show the difference between shding and
Try dragging across the floor a box weighted with books. Then
slip wheels or rollers under the box, and try again.
Harter, Helen. How We Travel. Follett Publishing Co. Chi-
cago, III. Pp. 31. Pictures particularly applicable to use of the
w^heel in transportation.
Petersham. Story of the Wheel. John C. Winston Co., Phila-
let's see a moving picture
Development of Transportation. 11 min. sound film. Shows the
types of natural barriers which for ages compelled isolation of
various peoples. Describes the contribution of the steam loco-
motive, the gasoline engine, and the development of the rail-
way systems in the United States. Depicts man's conquest of
sea and air.
Transportation, Part 1. 15 min. silent film. Shows the Egyptian
sled and dog sled, early car, prairie schooner, stage coach,
"Tom Thumb," "De Witt Clinton," modern steam locomotive,
electric trains, roadbeds, tunnels and grades.
Transportation, Part II. 15 min. silent film. Man as beast of
burden, evolution of the wheel, use pf animals, early and later
steam trains, subways, elevated, early automobile, New York
street scenes, and air transportation.
Transportation, The Story of. 12 min. silent film. Shows Indian
drags, mule trains, stage coaches, horse-drawn cars, diagrams
of principle of early steam engines, development of the cylin-
der and sliding valve, wood-burning river boat, and the prin-
ciple of the gas engine.
The Rocket, an historical locomotive important in the early devel-
opment of railroad transportation.
IT'S IN THE AIR
THE STORY. This is the story of the greatest system of mass
communication that has ever been devised. Egbert will tell in
dramatic form some of the steps which carried communication
from the point where it was necessary to have wires running
from place to place, to a literal broadcasting of messages in all
directions and without wires. The first experiments were called
wireless telegraphy, and messages were sent by means of
sparks. The invention of the vacuum tube made it possible to
transmit and receive music and voice, and the new device
came to be known as the wireless telephone or the radiophone
—from which we get the word radio.
SUGGESTED MATERIALS FOR CLASSROOM DEMONSTRATION
If possible, obtain an old crystal set and ear phones.
Bring in vacuum tubes from radio (may be discarded tubes,
which will be satisfactory to show the different elements ) .
Science or social studies textbook of vintage of 1915 explaining
about "wireless" and another of 1925 telling about the birth of
Modern "ads" for radio or television sets.
VOCABULARY volumc rectification wave-length
transmitter audio-frequency kilocycle aerial
microphone radio-frequency selectivity ground
amplifier modulation impulses vacuum tube
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES BEFORE THE BROADCAST
How many different stations can you tune in on your radio set
when the volume is lowest?
How many can you tune in when the volume is highest? Do
you have a tone control on your radio? Listen to a program and
observe what difference this adjustment makes. How many
tubes are in your radio?
Have a "mock" broadcast in the classroom.
WHAT TO LISTEN FOR
How men first tried to send radio signals through space.
How your voice is turned into "radio" waves and then back
into "sound" waves again; or what happens between the micro-
phone and the classroom.
The steps in the development from "spark" signals to modern
SUGGESTED ACTIVITIES AFTER THE BROADCAST
What is the scientific explanation of "560" on your dial?
Report on different techniques used on the radio— e.g. drama,
interview, monologues, quizzes, variety show, etc.
Ask any student who has broadcast to report on his experi-
Ask for reports of visits to studios.
Arrange for a visit to WFIL to see a broadcast of "Science is
Fun"; or a visit to WFIL to see studios and a sound effects
Have students tell of their own experiments with sound effects.
Organize a Radio Club if there is not one in the school.
Peet, Creighton. All About Broadcasting. Alfred A. Knopf,
N. Y., 1942. Pp. 67. Written for children. Well illustrated.
Floherty, John J. On the Air. The Junior Literary Guild and
Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1937. Pp. 99. Another well illus-
trated book on the subject.
A school Radio Club practices for a broadcast. Students appearing
on a radio program gain a deeper appreciation of this- vital means
Network Broadcasting. 12 min. sound film. Shows how modern
network radio programs are sent over the air and the part tele-
phone circuits play in making them possible. May be used to
depict the number of employment opportunities available in
News in the Air. 20 min. sound film. Describes the radio as a
means of communication and dissemination of news. Employs
the Panay incident as a typical situation from the time the
reporter swims from the sinking vessel until the news is broad-
cast over a major network.
On the Air. 28 min. sound film. Describes how radio programs
are written, built, rehearsed, timed and produced. A technical
section describes "what makes radio work."
Television. 9 min. sound film. Briefly describes the parts of the
television receiver and transmitter. Shows the televised broad-
cast of a horse race and the use of the mobile television trans-
mitter unit. Shots of a televised studio broadcast.
The two programs cited are merely examples of what may be
done today to enrich the sciences by utilizing many different
materials of instruction. There is no reason why similar pro-
grams cannot be planned for use in chemistry, biology, general
science, physics, physiology and hygiene. Lantern slides, illus-
trating equipment, apparatus and diagrams, may all be made
by pupils and used as part of the demonstrations. Filmstrips
dealing with the lives and contributions to science of eminent
scientists are available and should be used as part of the class
Although the programs cited call attention to materials to
be seen in a great museum in one large city, programs of this
type may be used in any schoolroom today. In place of a field
trip to a museum, the teacher may substitute an exhibit of
materials borrowed from a museum or other educational insti-
tution. This method brings the museums and educational
institutions into the classroom when it is not practical for the
class to make actual field trips to them. Such materials should
be brought into the classroom, made a part of classroom equip-
ment, and used to vitalize and enrich discussion periods and
AUDIO-VISUAL ENRICHMENT programs are ac-
cepted today as a valuable method of teaching and integrating
the various areas in the curriculum. Learning wholly through
the ears by means of the spoken word has always been recog-
nized, although it has often resulted in "verbalism," a mere
hearing of words, a memorizing of informative facts without
any real understanding and appreciation of their meaning.
When boys and girls "see" as well as "hear" the subject con-
tent, then the words become meaningful.
Audio- visual enrichment programs should be carefully pre-
pared with a full understanding of the content and aim of each
aid, the reasons for its use and combination with other aids.
For each visual and audio-visual aid has a particular useful-
ness and advantage which is often intensified by combination
with other aids. The teacher who plans the programs should
be skilled in the selection and combination of the various aids
which best interpret the meaning of the areas presented.
Often, and especially with younger children, there is the need
of multi-sensory appeal through eyes, ears and fingers. Stere-
opticon slides might fully enrich the content of one lesson,
kodachrome slides might be the best selection for another— an
art program for example— whereas a combination of slides,
films, color prints, habitat groups, models, dioramas and school
trips might be essential for enrichment programs integrating
various areas in the curriculum.
It is for the teacher to decide which aids and combinations
of aids are to be used with the objective of changing the cur-
riculum from stereotyped, formal, verbal learning in unrelated
areas, to vital, human, sensory and happy learning in related
areas. Through this method, opportunity is given for individ-
ual thinking, feeling and doing— instead of limiting learning
to the intellectual activities alone which were formerly of the
INTEGRATION WITH THE CURRICULUM. Since
no subject in the curriculum should be taught as an area by
itself, but rather in relation to other areas, integrated programs
are important in presenting this relationship. Visual and audio-
visual aids increase the interest which children have in these
various areas and bring home to them their close relationship
in what otherwise might be abstract, indefinite experiences.
Audio-visual aids substitute concrete, definite experiences
which enrich and humanize learning, build up broader back-
grounds, and make the content of each area meaningful, con-
necting it with real life.
All will agree that literature should not be "dissected" but
humanized. By means of audio-visual aids, children are ena-
bled to "live" past experiences and enjoy new ones through the
sympathetic sharing of the experiences of the characters in
stories and personalities in history and science. Brain and
hand, feeling and will, become active in vital experiences
through audio-visual enrichment, which not only shows the
relation of various areas in the curriculum one to another, but
the contribution each has to offer to the integrated knowledge
which will enrich the lives of our boys and girls. Critical think-
ing, individual feeling and dynamic doing are stimulated. The
desire to see original material in proper settings is aroused,
enabling the real experience to become the learning situation,
and thus providing functional learning.
Through these programs, interest which has been created
in one area is kindled, also, in related areas. The value of such
integrated programs, with appeal through seeing, hearing,
touching, creating, is self-evident. Such presentations enrich
and humanize learning. Audio-visual programs in which chil-
dren take an active part in research and creative expression
stimulate an even greater understanding of the various areas
which they integrate and enrich.
BUDGET. The extent to which the school audio-visual en-
richment program may be developed depends upon the school
budget, donations from parent organizations, and returns from
school entertainments, "fairs," etc.
Many schools are without these facilities and must base
their programs upon free materials which are available. For-
tunately there are both educational and commercial films with-
out fees— such as government films and those which present,
often in a vivid, educational manner, commercial products.
There are stereopticon slides, black and white and color prints
which may be borrowed, even habitat groups, dioramas and
unit materials.* These aids enable programs to be presented
although lack of funds may limit their scope and hinder the
realization of ideals.
Some schools are fortunate in receiving financial help from
their Parent Associations. Hunter College Elementary School
in New^ York City is unique since it not only has the budget for
audio-visual enrichment programs provided by its Parent As-
sociation, but also receives the services of an active and ef-
fective parent committee. The members of this Audio- Visual
Enrichment Committee procure the materials, help in operat-
ing machines and arrange bulletin boards. A teacher commit-
tee also cooperates with the Chairman of Audio- Visual En-
CLASSROOM PREPARATION. Teaching programs in
most subjects are carried out in classrooms. It should be kept
in mind that the classroom is the frame or setting for a pro-
gram. This setting should be properly arranged if good results
are to be achieved. Good films, slides, pictures or maps are of
little help if they are poorly and improperly used and dis-
played in the classroom.
The first item to be checked is equipment for projection. If
it is necessary to project in a darkened room, proper window
curtains or shades should be provided, so that maximum bril-
liance and clearness are achieved. Projector and screen should
be set up and checked before the class convenes. Last-minute
* See Chapter XVI, "Where to Obtain Help."
adjustments distract the attention of the children and also take
time that might better be spent in presentation of the lesson.
If anything is wrong with the projector, or if repairs are neces-
sary, they should be attended to before the class period in
which the projector is to be used.
If flat prints, dolls, objects, maps or other aids are to be used,
they should be set out on shelves or bulletin-display boards
before the lesson starts. All materials that are to be used for
a particular lesson should be taken out of cupboards and so
placed that they are accessible when needed. Time spent in
hurried searching for some item is class time wasted.
A special room devoted to audio-visual aids is highly desirable. A
teacher should be in charge to advise and assist in the presentation
and procurement of aids needed in the classrooms.
TEACHING AIDS. Wherever possible, teaching aids
should be displayed in the classroom for a long enough period
of time for the children to become familiar with them. They
should also be displayed in an attractive arrangement. Mod-
em advertising display techniques might well be utilized in
order to catch and hold the attention of pupils. The amount
of material on display at any one tin^ depends upon how much
material is needed and also upon how much the teacher feels
it wise to display for any one lesson. This is a matter which
varies according to the subject, the amount of material avail-
able, the need for supplementary teaching aids, the quality
of material available, and the intelligence level of the class.
One picture, effectively displayed, may be better at one time
than a series of pictures. At another time a series of related
pictures may be needed to illustrate and clarify some topic
that has baffled and dismayed another group.
Even though a school has a center for the storage, care and
distribution of teaching aids, each teacher should have mate-
rials in her own room which are directly related to the subject
she teaches. This collection, which may consist of pictures,
maps, clippings, posters or pamphlets, will enable her to have
an ever-ready source of supplementary material upon which
to draw. Then, when additional aids, such as motion pictures,
lantern slides, filmstrips, dolls, etc., are needed, they may be
secured from the general school collection. If the children
bring to school clippings and other material, both the class-
room collection and pupil interest will be increased.
THE AUDIO-VISUAL ROOM. The question of whether
or not it is advisable to set aside a separate room for the audio-
visual program is one which depends upon the school layout
and construction, the school budget and the teaching program.
The ideal situation would be to have each classroom provided
with equipment for the showing of motion pictures and slides,
and sufficient cupboard space to have the other aids kept in
readiness. This, however, involves an expenditure of money
not possible for the average school. The best, practical situa-
tion would be to have an audio-visual room on each floor of the
One practical solution to the problem is to have one room in
which all projection equipment is set up and kept in readiness
for use at all times, and to take classes to this room when audio-
visual aids are to be used. If this plan is followed, one teacher
should be in charge of the room and a definite time schedule
arranged for its use. If the teacher assigned to be in charge of
the audio-visual room is also to plan the audio-visual program
for classes using the facilities of the room, she should not be
expected to carry a full teaching schedule of other subjects.
The successful planning and carrying out of an effective audio-
visual enrichment program is a full-time assignment in itself.
The room selected should have good acoustical properties
in order that sound motion pictures and recordings may be
used to full advantage. Poor sound effects are as much a hin-
drance to good teaching as poor films. The room should be cen-
trally located and easily accessible to classes from all parts of
the building. The windows should be equipped with heavy
curtains or shades so that the room may be darkened suffi-
ciently to insure good projection. A roll screen mounted on the
wall, or a standing screen should be in readiness at all times.
The projector to be used, whether motion picture, filmstrip,
or lantern slide, should be set up and focused before the class
arrives. If the class teacher is to be the projectionist, she
should have the films or slides in order for insertion in the
machine. When sound materials are to be used, the sound
speaker should be connected. If a student projectionist or the
audio-visual aid teacher is to be projectionist, these same de-
tails should be checked before each class arrives.
A portable projector for 2 x 2 inch slides and a microphone con-
nected to a loudspeaker are convenient if the auditorium is not
equipped with a projection booth.
The audio-visual room should be large enough to accommo-
date at least two classes. It is often wise to show motion pic-
tures to more than one class at a time. When a guest speaker
is present, several classes may be brought together for the
program. For good audio- visual enrichment programs, the
room devoted to these programs should be carefully planned
and equipped. Then the program will be carried out in such a
way that it becomes part of the whole teaching schedule, in-
stead of being an afterthought.
AUDIO-VISUAL PROGRAMS IN THE AUDITO-
RIUM. Every school auditorium should be equipped with
facilities for showing any and all of the types of materials
already mentioned. Assembly progiams should be enriched
by the showing of motion pictures; guest speakers should be
asked to give illustrated talks; students should be encouraged
to use these aids in presenting their own speeches or plays.
One thing to be avoided, however, is the use of the audito-
rium as the audio-visual room. If this plan is followed, it is
likely to mean that motion pictures are shown to large groups
of students, regardless of whether or not the pictures are ap-
plicable to the needs of all or only part of the group. Students
soon come to regard such motion picture showings merely as
entertainment. When this occurs, no great gain will come from
the use of even the very best teaching films, and mediocre
films will be of still less value.
The well-planned assembly program should be one part of
the complete audio- visual enrichment program. If a class has
been successful in the preparation of a good play, puppet show
or radio-script, these will often prove of benefit to the whole
school when given as an assembly presentation. But the audi-
torium is not the place for the successful carrying out of audio-
visual programs planned for individual class work.
EQUIPMENT FOR DISPLAY. The audio-visual room
should be provided with sufiicient space and equipment for
proper display of the diflFerent types of teaching aids. Modern
bulletin boards may be purchased, or made in the school shops.
It is essential that such display boards be provided for the
arrangement of flat pictures, maps and prints. Materials of this
type often lose their effectiveness if poorly displayed or
crowded into a small area. It is sometimes a good plan to have
blackboard and display board sections alternating around two
sides of the room. This makes it possible to show pictorial
materials while still providing adequate space for blackboard
Display cabinets with glass doors should be provided for
objects which must be kept locked up or behind glass. A good
type of cabinet is one with glass-doored shelves in the upper
section and storage cupboard space in the lower section. Open
shelf space should also be provided for materials which may
safely be displayed in this way and for books, pictures, pottery
and other objects. Whatever the type of cabinet, ample space
should be provided so that many types of materials may be
displayed and made available to the students.
SPECIAL EXHIBITIONS. The ingenious audio-visual
teacher will try to change the exhibits on display frequently
enough to keep student interest alive. Special exhibitions
should be planned for the different holiday periods, for spe-
cial lessons, for open-school week, for parent-teacher associa-
tion meetings, and for many other occasions. These exhibits
should not always be arranged by the same group of students,
but all students should be encouraged to assist in the prepara-
tion and setting up of such displays. Students should be
encouraged to bring in material from home for temporary
exhibits; friends should be invited to lend materials they have
collected on trips to foreign countries; the entire teaching staff
of the school should be invited to contribute objects for special
exhibits; hobby and craft exhibits should be held, both for
students and teachers. The arrangement of a special exhibit
will often be found the means of arousing interest in some
topic which would otherwise have made a mere routine lesson.
CREATIVE ACHIEVEMENTS cannot be measured by
laboratory tests. They are individual, often intangible, and
Perhaps the understanding and appreciation of the w^onders
of the world in science and art, the comprehension of world
rather than national history and culture, the vision of world
citizenship of tomorrow in a world where time and space have
been conquered, are not the least of these results. Audio-visual
aids can accomplish economically, effectively, and happily
what only world travel can in relation to education on a world
basis. They enable our boys and girls to participate in what
seems to them actual reality of experience, so vital may be the
use of these aids by those who realize their power and know
how to make use of it.
History ceases to be lessons of dates, names, events and
places to be learned and soon forgotten. It comes to life
through pictures of episodes and people, for "makers of pic-
tures," whether they are painters of pictures or motion picture
directors who often seek the help of the former, are able to
present the scene as a whole rather than unfold it a bit at a
time as historians must do in words. History and geography
fit together like adjacent parts of a puzzle when audio-visual
materials bring out the dependence of history upon environ-
ment. Literature and science, art, arts and crafts, and music-
all fall into place as vivid, integrated programs, made possible
by the skillful selection and combination of these aids.
Art and music, drama and the dance, belong to all of us,
and are a part of our lives, whatever our country, race, religion
or language may be. Through multi-sensory aids, the wonder of
this realization enters the minds and hearts of the students. It
makes them true creators, for they realize that there is no class
or rank in this cultural heritage, that the message given can
be understood by all.
A special Library Corner can be set aside in any classroom where
visual aids in the development of the language arts program can
Boys and girls grow in comprehension of the knowledge
that the arts are everywhere, and that the enjoyment of them
belongs to rich and poor alike.
Robert W. de Forest, former president of the Metropolitan
Museum of Art, and donor with Mrs. de Forest, of the Amer-
ican Wing which has contributed much to the humanizing of
art and history, often told audiences of children in the
museum's illustrated and integrated story programs, that they
were part owners of the gallery treasures because they were
able to enjoy them.
Audio-visual, integrated programs encourage children in
their creativeness. They bring forth the idea, which to some
children comes as a surprise, that creative ability may belong
to the very poor as well as to those endowed with wealth. It
is a wonderful idea which stimulates inventiveness and orig-
inality in words both spoken and written, in both prose and
poetry, in scientific experiments, in original music, and in
artistic endeavors through various media— clay, crayon, chalk,
paint, dioramas, models, etc. These common cultural lan-
guages which they have come to understand produce critical
thinking,^ individual feeling, and creative contributions.
INFLUENCE ON CHARACTER. The understanding
and enjoyment of world achievements which come through
these programs, often stimulate ideals and develop character.
A boy in one of New York City's large junior high schools, a
problem in behavior, through his attendance at the museum's
illustrated story -hour programs which vitalized art and inte-
grated it with history, geography, and music, became so
interested in the museum's treasures, that he gave up his ques-
tionable street activities on Sundays, and visited the museum
each week, instead. His work improved in school to the satis-
faction of his teachers, and he helped his mother with money
he earned on a job after school to which he was surprisingly
faithful. He became a cooperative citizen, offering his serv-
A giant meteor from outer space has multi-sensory appeal for these
children visiting the Hayden Planetarium (New York).
ices as a story hour "Knight" each Sunday. He made a real
contribution to his community.
If parents can be encouraged to take children on visits to
places of interest they will be helping the teachers in the effort
to make children visualize and appreciate the world in which
they live. Parents' organizations often make this a part of their
own program. Members of one such group visited the Amer-
ican Museum of Natural History as a part of their parent train-
ing program, and their reaction was expressed by one parent
who said, "We took this excursion so that we could introduce
these mothers to one of the finest educational opportunities
in our city. We did this, not only for their edification, but so
that they would interest members of their families (husbands
and older children ) and their neighbors. We had ample evi-
dence that this was achieved. Some said they could hardly
wait for the week-end so that they could return with older
children." Another group said they would not be satisfied until
all the mothers in the school had been there and so they were
going back to organize another visiting group.
TRAINING FOR SELF-MANAGEMENT. The train-
ing of boys and girls to serve as projectionists and assistants to
the teacher in charge of visual instruction can be made a
valuable experience for these students. At one school in up-
state New York all projection is taken care of by the Student
Projection Squad. Boys and girls are chosen for this squad
by means of mechanical aptitude tests at the start of each
school year. * In this way students are secured who have defi-
nite aptitude for this type of work and an esprit de corps is
estabhshed which is invaluable. The students thus selected
are given a training course by the teacher in charge of visual
instruction. It has been found wise not to draw upon students
below the eighth grade. The members of the squad thus
formed and trained are designated as Certified Operators,
under direction of a Student Manager. All details, such as
checking equipment, checking program of visual aids to be
supplied to various teachers and assigning of projectionists, are
carried out by this squad.
As a result of using the services of a well-trained student
squad, the following goals have been achieved in this school:
1. Economical operation of the visual instruction program for
the entire school.
2. Training of students in mature human relation contacts and
This program has virtually added a new course to the school
curriculum, namely, a course in responsible self -management.
Moreover, the student has been given a powerful new learning
medium both for his own training and for the training of his
f ellow-students. t
* Three standardized tests have been found to be excellent: ( 1) O'Rourke's
"Mechanical Aptitudes Test", (2) Mellenbruch, Form A, and (3) Re\ised
Minnesota Form Board Test, Series A.
^ The program described is in operation at the Roelif Jansen Central School,
Hillsdale, New York, under the direction and supervision of Mr. George
Colclough, Director of Visual Instruction at the school. Mr. Colclougli's com-
plete program is described by him in "Let's Build That Bridge," Educational
SKILLS AND CRAFTSMANSHIP. When students have
been given an opportunity to see works of art and examples
of skilled craftsmanship, they gradually become aware of the
fact that they themselves can make these experiences part of
their own lives. In the Red Bank, New Jersey, High School, a
recent project proved the practical value of training students,
through visual methods, to create their own works of art.
The art instructor departed from the usual practice of paint-
ing pictures, designs, posters, etc., and inaugurated a project
of repainting and redecorating old furniture. She had
High school students of Red Bank, New Jersey, show skilled crafts-
manship in decorating old furniture.
worked with Peter Hunt, popular decorator, whose furniture
and European peasant designs have proved so popular. The
designs were so colorful and appealing that she saw in this
branch of art an opportunity to give her students the experi-
ence of actually decorating and refinishing a piece of furni-
ture and at the same time producing a beautiful example of
The entire story of color and design was carefully reviewed.
Many pictures and magazine clippings of furniture and in-
teriors were studied and discussed. Actual and "imagined"
plans for homes, color schemes, and furnishings were thor-
oughly examined. Each student was then permitted to bring
into the classroom a chair, a small table, radio cabinet or the
like, on which he could work and which was his to take home
when finished. Generally speaking, only a small proportion
of the classroom results were of exhibit standard. However,
regardless of the student's skill, even those below average
learned to produce a finished product in this furniture line.
Close correlation of all past work was maintained and the
project became the tangible evidence of the value of a mass
of accumulated knowledge. The students drew upon a knowl-
edge of the characteristics of paints; they learned how to mix
and prepare paints; how to clean, scrape, sandpaper, and re-
vamp old furniture; how to apply the new paint and the design
and finally how to "antique" the finished product.
* This project was conceived and carried out by Mrs. Frances A. Moore, Art
Instructor at the Red Bank, New Jersey, High School, during 1945-1946.
Creative work of this type takes art out of the classroom and
places it in the home and in the community. It also proves to
students that artistic skill and craftsmanship are not reserved
for the creators of museum pieces but are abilities that may
be acquired in some degree by anyone. Students hitherto
totally disinterested in decorating or painting took a keen in-
terest in these subjects when they saw the practical applica-
tion to objects that were part of home and everyday life.
The influence of the popular decorator, Peter Hunt, is shown in this
old dresser, redecorated by high school students at Red Bank.
XV. Teacher Education
DO EDUCATORS of today consider seriously enough the
responsibihty of teacher education institutions to acquaint stu-
dents about to go out into schools as teachers with the impor-
tance of audio-visual aids and their effectiveness in teaching? *
More and more schools throughout the country are making
use of the equipment and materials now more generally avail-
able. Student teachers should start their teaching experience
with full knowledge of what audio-visual enrichment means,
its dynamic influence upon the curriculum and upon world
They should be acquainted with the techniques and skills,
with the sources of equipment and materials of this vital
method of teaching, with its power as a means of integration
with various areas in the curriculum.
The misuse of audio-visual aids must be made clear to these
new teachers in order to afford a better understanding of their
proper use. Many teachers already in schools, often with years
of experience, have the impression that audio-visual enrich-
ment means, literally, the mere showing in classroom or
auditorium of many audio-visual aids— flat pictures, slides,
filmstrips, dioramas, etc. New and inexperienced teachers
need to realize, through required courses which are a definite
part of their teacher-training, that this way of presenting
* This chapter is offered as a possible guide for training student teacher classes
in the use of audio-visual materials and equipment. It is an outline for course
work in this field.
audio-visual aids is not genuine audio- visual enrichment.
These courses must demonstrate, through an understanding
of the philosophy and educational principles involved, through
concrete examples of programs which show the proper and
eflFective use of these materials, that audio-visual enrichment
of the curriculum includes:
1. An understanding of the various sensory materials avail-
able, and their sources.
2. The realization that an eflFective use of these materials
necessitates intelligent research, selection, evaluation, elimi-
nation and combination of the aids and the harmonious rela-
tionship of one aid to another.
3. A conviction that audio-visual enrichment is not a sepa-
rate subject but a teaching method applicable to any and all
areas in the curriculum. They should realize that it results in
economical, vital and happy learning.
4. Understanding of the interdependence of the various
curriculum areas which these aids integrate, and their cultural
5. The need of a specialist to teach and demonstrate the vital
use of these materials.
6. A basic development of operational skills.
7. The realization that these aids will never take the place of
teachers but will greatly aid in vivid, happy learning experi-
ences which approximate reality— that they supplement teach-
During the course there should be an opportunity, in
laboratory periods, for each of the students to give an audio-
visual integrated program of his or her own planning, in which
the principles and techniques presented in the course are
demonstrated in regular classroom procedures so far as pos-
Reports, evaluations of audio-visual aids, constructive criti-
cisms of programs and free discussions would be important
factors of the course, as vital as the lectures, demonstrations
and laboratory periods. Group conferences, also, would be
helpful among the specialists and the student teachers and,
whenever possible, with children who have been in the demon-
stration audiences, for their reactions are important.
TOPICS TO BE INCLUDED IN TEACHER EDUCATION COURSE IN
SELECTION AND USE OF AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS
1. Philosophy underlying effective utilization of audio-visual
2. How to plan and organize an effective audio- visual teach-
3. How to plan and organize the audio- visual instruction
4. Enrichment of social studies through audio-visual aids.
5. Enrichment of language arts through audio-visual aids.
6. Enrichment of the sciences through audio-visual aids.
* This is being done in workshops in the Hunter College Education Depart-
ment and in the School of Education, New York University.
7. How to organize and arrange classroom and school mu-
seums and exhibits.
8. Sources for audio-visual materials and equipment.
9. How to operate various types of projection equipment.
a. Demonstrations by instructor.
b. Operation by students.
10. Motion Pictures.
a. Discussions of techniques for using motion pictures.
b. Demonstrations of use of motion pictures in actual class-
c. Evaluation of motion pictures available for school use.
d. Production of school pupil-made motion pictures.
11. Photography and Camera Clubs, Flat Pictures.
a. Techniques for use of photographs and pictures.
b. How to organize and conduct a school camera club.
12. Lantern Slides.
a. Discussions of techniques for utilization of lantern slides.
b. How to make standard size and miniature lantern slides.
c. Demonstration of use of lantern slides in actual classroom
a. Discussion of techniques for utilization of filmstrips.
b. How to make filmstrips.
c. Demonstration of use of filmstrips in actual classroom
a. How to make dioramas.
b. Demonstration of ways of using dioramas in actual class-
15. Maps, Charts and Globes.
a. Discussion of techniques for use of maps, charts and
b. Demonstration of effective utilization of maps, charts, and
16. Radio, Television, Recordings.
a. Discussion of techniques for utilization of radio, tele-
vision, and recordings.
b. Production and presentation of programs using these ma-
17. Training the Student Visual- Aid Staff.
a. How to organize and train a student visual-aid staff.'
b. Role of student visual-aid staff in audio-visual program of
18. Criteria and Standards for Selection and Use of Audio-
a. Discussion of criteria and standards applicable to vari-
ous types of materials.
b. Formulation of criteria and standards for selection and
use of audio- visual materials.
XVI. Where to Obtain Help
AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS DISTRIBUTION CENTERS-
STATE AND REGIONAL
Superintendent of Visual Aids, University of Alabama, University.
Director of Extension, University of Arizona, Tucson.
Director, Department of Public Relations, Arkansas State Teachers
College, Normal Station, Conway.
Extension Division, University of California, Berkeley.
Extension Division, University of California, Los Angeles.
Visual Aids Supervisor, Department of Education, Los Angeles.
Director of Visual Education, Stockton Junior College, Stockton.
Visual Education Department, Mendocino County Schools, Ukiah.
Director, Bureau of Visual Instruction, University of Colorado,
Director, Film Center, University of Denver, Denver.
Colorado State College of Education, Greeley.
Director, Audio- Visual Aids Center, University of Connecticut,
Department of Audio- Visual Instruction, University of Florida,
General Extension Service, University System of Georgia, Atlanta.
University Extension Division, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.
Assistant Extension Editor, Extension Service, University of Idaho,
Director, University Educational Film Service, University of
Idaho, Southern Branch, Pocatello.
Director, Film Library, Southern Illinois Normal University, Car-
Supervisor of Visual Aids, University of Illinois, Champaign.
Consultant, Bureau of Audio- Visual Aids, Indiana University,
Director, Teaching Materials Service, Ball State Teachers Col-
Director of Extension, Indiana State Teachers College, Terre
Director, Visual Instruction Service, Iowa State College, Ames.
Department of Visual Instruction, University of Iowa, Iowa City.
Director, Extension Division, Kansas State College, Fort Hays.
Bureau of Visual Instruction, Extension Division, University of
Audio-Visual Aids Department, University of Kentucky, Lexing-
Department of Visual Instruction, State Department of Educa-
tion, Baton Rouge.
General Extension Service, Louisiana State University, University.
Dean, School of Education, University of Maine,. Orono.
Maryland Academy of Sciences, Baltimore.
Director of Visual Instruction, State Department of Education,
Director, Division of Teaching Aids, Boston University, Boston.
Director, Harvard Film Service, Harvard University, Cambridge.
Director, Visual Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Assistant Extension Editor, Information Service, Michigan State
College, East Lansing.
Director of Extension, Central Michigan College of Education, Mt.
Director, Visual Education, Extension Division, University of
Minnesota, Minneapolis 14.
Visual Education Service, Extension Division, University of Mis-
Director of Publications, Extension Service, Montana State Col-
Supervisor, Visual Aids in Education, Department of Public In-
University Extension Division, Univerisity of Nebraska, Lincoln.
Extension Forester and Film Librarian, University of Nevada,
Extension Specialist in Visual Aids, University of New Hampshire,
Director, Dartmouth College Films, Hanover.
New Jersey State Museum, Trenton.
Teaching Aids Service, New Jersey State Teachers College, Mont-
Director of Extension, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.
Buffalo Society of Natural Science, Buffalo.
Principal, State Normal and Training School, Cortland.
Executive Secretary, Cooperative Film Library, State Teachers
Film Librarian, New York University Film Library, Washington
Square, New York City.
Department of Education, American Museum of Natural History,
Central Park West at 79th Street, New York City.
Executive Secretary, Adirondack Film Library, State Teachers
Executive Secretary, Potsdam State Teachers College, Coopera-
tive School Film Library of Northern New York, Potsdam.
Librarian, Rush Rhees Library, University of Rochester, Rochester.
School of Education, Syracuse University, Syracuse.
Bureau of Visual Instruction, University Extension Division, Uni-
versity of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.
Director of Visual Education, North Dakota State College, Fargo.
University Extension Division, University Station, Grand Forks.
Director of Visual Instruction, State Department of Education,
Director of Visual Instruction, East Central State College, Ada.
Extension Division, University of Oklahoma, Norman.
Head, Visual Instruction Department, Oregon State College,
Registrar, Classroom Film Library, Bucknell University, Lewis-
Sensory Aids Director, State Teachers College, Millersville.
Curator, Commercial Museum, Philadelphia.
Curator, University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 33rd and
Spruce Streets, Philadelphia.
Director, P.C.W. Film Service, Pennsylvania College for Women,
Supervisor, Audio-Visual Aids, Pennsylvania State College, State
Department of Education, San Juan.
Director, Extension Division, University of S. C, Columbia.
Director of Extension, University of South Dakota, Vermillion.
specialist in School and Community Service, University Extension,
University of Tennessee, Box 4218, University Station, Knoxville.
Director, Joint University Libraries, Vanderbilt University, Nash-
Director, Visual Instruction, Extension Building, University of
Director, Film Division, Bureau of Public Service, West Texas
State Teachers College, Canyon.
Department of Public Service, Sam Houston State Teachers Col-
Director, East Texas Bureau of Visual Education, Kilgore Junior
Director, Division of Extension, Texas Technological College,
Department of Education, S. A. Austin State Teachers College,
Secretary, Bureau of Visual Instruction, Brigham Young University,
Director, Extension Division, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.
Robert Hull Fleming Museum, Classroom Film Library, Uni-
versity of Vermont, Burlington.
Supervisor, Audio-Visual Education, State Board of Education,
Director, Bureau of Audio-Visual Aids, Extension Division, Uni-
versity of Virginia, University.
Director of Public Service, Central Washington College of Edu-
Director, Bureau of Visual Instruction, State College of Washing-
Librarian, West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Bureau of Visual Instruction, University of Wisconsin, Madison.
EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
A. F. Films, Inc. 1600 Broadway, New York 19, New York
Akin and Bagshaw, Inc., 2023 E. Colfax Avenue, Denver, Colorado
American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central
Park West; New York 24, New York
Association Films (Y.M.C.A. Motion Picture Bureau)
351 Turk Street, San Francisco 2, California
19 South La Salle Street, Chicago 3, Illinois
347 Madison Avenue, New York 17, New York
1700 Patterson Avenue, Dallas 1, Texas
Astor Pictures Corporation, 130 West 46th Street, New York 19,
Bailey Film Service, P.O. Box 2528, Hollywood 28, California
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Rochester 2, New York
Bell and Howell Company, 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago 45,
Brandon Films, 1600 Broadway, New York 19, New York
Bray Studios, Inc., 729 Seventh Avenue, New York 19, New York
Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York
Cathedral Films, 6404 Sunset Boulevard, P.O. Box 589, Hollywood
Catholic Movies, 220 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New York;
1409-79th Street, North Bergen, New Jersey
Commonwealth Pictures Corporation, 729 Seventh Avenue, New
York 19, New York
De Vry School Films, 1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago 11, Illinois
Eastman Kodak Stores, Inc. ( Kodascope Libraries Division ) , 356
Madison Avenue, New York 17, New York
Edited Pictures System, 165 West 46th Street, New York 19, New
Encyclopedia Britannica Films Inc., 20 North Wacker Drive,
Chicago 6, Illinois
Eye Gate House, Inc„ 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New
1709 W. 8th Street, Los Angeles 14, California
101 Marietta Street, Atlanta 3, Georgia
64 East Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois
330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New York
109 N. Akard Street, Dallas 1, Texas
Gallagher Fi^m Service, Bay Theater Building, Green Bay, Wis-
consin; 639 N. 7th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
General Electric Company, 1 River Road, Schnectady 5, New York
Hoffberg Productions, Inc., 620 Ninth Avenue, New York 18, N.Y.
Institutional Cinema Service, Inc., 1560 Broadway, New York 19,
The Jam Handy Organization, 2821 East Grand Boulevard, Detroit
Knowledge Builders (Classroom Films), 625 Madison Avenue,
New York 22, New York
Lewis Film Service, 1145 N. Market Street, Wichita 5, Kansas
Metropolitan Life Insurance Company ( Health and Welfare Divi-
sion), 1 Madison Avenue, New York 10, New York
The Museum of Modern Art Film Library, 11 West 53rd Street,
New York 19, New York
Natiopal Audubon Society, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, N.Y.
National Council of Teachers of English, 211 West 68th Street,
Chicago 21, Illinois
Official Films, Inc., 25 West 45th Street, New York 19, New York
Pictorial Films, Inc., R.K.O. Building, Radio City, New York 20,
Post Pictures Corporation, 723 Seventh Avenue, New York 19,
The Princeton Film Center, Princeton, New Jersey
Screen Adettes Inc.
1709 West 8th Street, Los Angeles 14, California
68 Post Street, San Francisco 4, California
611 North Tillamook Street, Portland 12, Oregon
Shadow Arts Studio, 1036 Chorro Street, San Luis Obispo, Cali-
Southern Visual Films, 686-689 Shrine Building, Memphis 1,
Swank Motion Pictures, 614 N. Skinker Boulevard, St. Louis 5,
Visual Education, Inc.
Twelfth at Lamar, Austin 21, Texas
602 N. St. Paul Street, Dallas 1, Texas
4431 Foard, Fort Worth, Texas
3905 South Main Street, Houston 4, Texas
Young America Films, Inc., 18 East 41st Street, New York 17,
Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York
Cathedral Films, 6404 Sunset Boulevard, P.O. Box 589, Hollywood
Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New
Informative Classroom Picture Publishers, 40 Ionia Avenue, N.W.,
Grand Rapids 2, Michigan
The Jam Handy Organization, 2821 East Grand Boulevard, De-
troit 11, Michigan
Lee Lyles, Assistant to the President, Santa Fe Railway, Chicago,
Philp Photo Visual Service, 1954 Pasadena Avenue, Long Beach 6,
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago
Stillfilm, Inc., 8443 Melrose Avenue, Hollywood 46, California
Visual Sciences, SuflFern, New York
The Wild Flower Preservation Society, Inc., 3740 OHver Street
N.W., Washington 15, D.C.
Young America Films, 18 East 41st Street, New York 17, New York
American Optical Company, Box A, Buffalo 15, New York
Ampro Corporation, 2835 N. Western Avenue, Chicago 18, Illinois;
545 Fifth Avenue, New York, New York
Bausch and Lomb Optical Company, Rochester 2, New York
Bell and Howell Company, 7100 McCormick Road, Chicago 45,
Charles Beseler Company, 243 East 23rd Street, New York 10,
De Vry Corporation, 1111 Armitage Avenue, Chicago 14, Illinois
Eastman Kodak Company, Rochester 4, New York
Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, N. Y.
Gallagher Film Service, Bay Theater Building, Green Bay, Wis-
consin; 639 N. 7th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Hirsch and Kaye, 239 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 8, CaUfornia
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania
Radio Corporation of America, RCA Victor Division, Educational
Department, Camden, New Jersey
Ralke Company, 829 South Flower Street, Los Angeles 14, Cali-
Ryan Visual Aids Service, 409-411 Harrison Street, Davenport,
Sawyer's Inc. (View-Master), 725 S.W. 20th Place, Portland 7,
S.O.S. Cinema Supply Corporation, 449 West 42nd Street, New
York 18, New York
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago
Southern Visual Films, 686-689 Shrine Building, Memphis 1,
Victor Animatograph Corporation (Division of Curtiss-Wright
Corp.), Davenport, Iowa
Visual Education, Inc.
Twelfth at Lamar, Austin 21, Texas
602 N. St. Paul Street, Dallas 1, Texas
4431 Foard, Fort Worth, Texas
3905 South Main Street, Houston 4, Texas
RECORDING AND SOUND EQUIPMENT
Audio Devices, Inc., 444 Madison Avenue, New York 22, New York
David Bogen Company, Inc., 663 Broadway, New York 12, N. Y.
General Electric Company, River Road, Schenectady 5, New York
The Hallicrafters Company, 4401 West Fifth Avenue, Chicago 24,
Radio Corporation of America, RCA Victor Division, Educational
Department, Camden, New Jersey
Rek-0-Kut Company, 146 Grand Street, New York 13, New York
Wilcox-Gay Corporation, Charlotte, Michigan
Da-Lite Screen Company, Inc., 2711-23 N. Pulaski Road, Chicago
Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New
Hirsch and Kaye, 239 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 8, California
Radiant Manufacturing Corporation, 1140-46 West Superior Street,
Chicago 22, Illinois
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago
Southern Visual Fihns, 686-689 Shrine Building, Memphis 1, Ten-
American Museum of Natural History, 79th Street and Central
Park West, New York 24, New York
Art Education, Inc., 6 East 34th Street, New York 16, New York
(2x2" slides only)
Brooking Tatum, Kelseyville, California
(2x2" slides only)
Castle Films, Inc., 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York 20, New York
(2x2" slides only)
Eye Gate House, Inc., 330 West 42nd Street, New York 18, New
Gallagher Film Service, Bay Theater Building, Green Bay, Wis-
consin; 639 N. 7th Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; (2x2" sHdes
Hirsch and Kaye, 239 Grant Avenue, San Francisco 8, California
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania
Kime Kolor Pictures, 1761 Sonoma Drive, Altadena, California
(2x2" slides only)
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 82nd Street and Fifth Avenue, New
York 28, New York
Munday and Collins, 814 West 8th Street, Los Angeles 14, Cali-
National Audubon Society, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, New
Philp Photo Visual Service, 1954 Pasadena Avenue, Long Beach 6,
California ( 2x2" slides only )
Ryan Visual Aids Service, 409-411 Harrison Street, Davenport,
Shadow Arts Studio, 1036 Chorro Street, San Luis Obispo, Cali-
Society for Visual Education, Inc., 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago
STEREOGRAPHS AND STEREOSCOPES
Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pennsylvania
Sawyer's Inc. (View-Master), 725 S.W. 20th Place, Portland 7,
MAPS, CHARTS AND GLOBES
Denoyer-Geppert Company, 5235 Ravenswood Avenue, Chicago
C. S. Hammond and Company, 88 Lexington Avenue, New York
16, New York
National Geographic Society ( School Service Division ) , 16 and M
Streets N.W., Washington 6, D.C.
A. J. Nystrom and Company, 3333 Elston Avenue, Chicago 18,
Rand McNally and Company
125 E. Sixth Street, Los Angeles, California
619 Mission Street, San Francisco, California
National Press Building, Washington, D.C.
536 S. Clark Street, Chicago, Illinois
111 Eighth Avenue, New York 11, New York
Weber Costello Company, 12th and McKinley, Chicago Heights,
MUSEUMS COOPERATING WITH AUDIO-
VISUAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS
Since there are many museums in the United States, it would be
beyond the scope of this book to Hst them all. A classified direc-
tory of the nation's museums is contained in The Museum In
America by Laurence V. Coleman. Price per set $7.50. Published
by the American Association of Museums, at the Smithsonian In-
stitution, Washington 25, D.C. This book may be seen in any
Following is a partial listing of representative Aiuseums offering
their facilities for use in audio-visual education:
Petrified Forest National Monument, Holbrook
Los Angeles County Museum of History, Science and Art, Exposi-
tion Park, Los Angeles 7
Southwest Museum, Los Angeles 42
Oakland Public Museum, 1426 Oak Street, Oakland 12
Junipero Serra Museum, San Diego Historical Society, 2727 Presi-
dio Drive, San Diego 3
San Diego Museum of Man, Balboa Park, San Diego
California Academy of Sciences, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco
California Palace of the Legion of Honor, Lincoln Park, San Fran-
M. H. De Young Memorial Museum, Golden Gate Park, San Fran-
Junior Museum, 600 Ocean Avenue, San Francisco
University of Colorado Museum, Boulder
The Denver Art Museum, Denver
Mesa Verde National Park Museum, Mesa Verde National Park
Rocky Mountain National Park, Estes Park
The Bruce Museum of Greenwich, Greenwich
Children's Museum of Hartford, 609 Farmington Avenue, Hart-
Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven
The Slater Memorial Museum, Norwich Free Academy, Norwich
Stamford Museum of Natural History, Stamford
DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA
The Howard University Gallery of Art, Founders Library, Howard
University, Washington 1
The Barnett Aden Gallery, 127 Randolph Place N.W., Wash-
The Art Institute of Chicago, Michigan Avenue at Adams Street,
The Chicago Academy of Sciences, 2001 North Clark Street,
Illinois State Museum, Springfield
Davenport Public Museum, Davenport
Department of History and Archives, Des Moines
Museum of Natural History, University of Iowa, Iowa City
The Baker-Hunt Foundation, Inc., 620 Greenup Street, Covington
The J. B. Speed Memorial (Art) Museum, Third and Shipp Streets,
Louisiana State Museum, Jackson Square, New Orleans 16
Wadsworth-Longfellow House, 487 Congress Street, Portland
Baltimore Museum of Art, Wyman Park, Baltimore 18
Ft. McHenry, Baltimore
Maryland Historical Society Museum and Library, 201 W. Monu-
ment Street, Baltimore 1
Municipal Museum of the City of Baltimore, Baltimore
Star-Spangled Banner Flag House, 844 E. Pratt Street, Baltimore
Walters Art Gallery, Baltimore
The Washington County Museum of Fine Arts, Hagerstown
Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover
Attleboro Museum, Attleboro
The Children's Museum (Boston), 60 Burroughs Street, Jamaica
Institute of Modern Art, Boston
Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 15
Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities, 141 Cam-
bridge Street, Boston
Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge 38
Botanical Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge
The Longfellow House, 105 Brattle Street, Cambridge
The Fitchburg Art Center, Fitchburg
The Berkshire Museum, Pittsfield
The Essex Institute, Salem
Springfield Museum of Art, Springfield
Department of Art ( Farnsworth Museum of Art ) , Wellesley Col-
lege, Wellesley 81
Lawrence Art Museum, Williams College, Williamstown
Worcester Art Museum, Worcester
Educational Department, The Detroit Institute of Arts, Detroit 2
Children's Museum of Detroit, 5205 Cass Avenue, Detroit 2
Grand Rapids Public Museum (Kent Scientific Museum), Grand
The Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, Kalamazoo 9
Kalamazoo Museum, 335 South Rose Street, Kalamazoo
The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis 4
Minneapolis Science Museum, 10th and Hennepin, Minneapolis
Minnesota Museum of Natural History, University of Minnesota,
Saint Paul Institute, St. Paul
St. Paul Science Museum, 51 University Avenue, St. Paul
William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Atkins Museum of Fine
Arts, Kansas 2
The St. Joseph Museum, 19th at Felix, St. Joseph 23
City Art Museum of St. Louis, Forest Park 5
Missouri Historical Society, Jefferson Memorial Building, St. Louis
Division of Audio- Visual Education of the St. Louis Public Schools,
4466 OHve Street, St. Louis 8
Glacier National Park Museum, Helton
The Currier Gallery of Art, 192 Orange Street, Manchester
The Montclair Art Museum, South Mountain and Bloomfield
Aztec Ruins National Monument, P.O. Box 457, Aztec
Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe
Museum of New Mexico, Santa Fe
NEW YORK ( CITY )
Poe Cottage, Kingsbridge Road at Grand Concourse, Bronx
Brooklyn Children's Museum, Brooklyn Avenue and Prospect
The Brooklyn Museum, The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and
Sciences, Eastern Parkway and Washington Avenue, Brooklyn 17
LeflFerts Homestead, Prospect Park at Flatbush Avenue and Empire
The American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at
79th Street, New York 24
American Numismatic Society, Broadway and 156th Street, New
The Cloisters (branch. Metropolitan Museum of Art), Fort Tryon
Park 33, New York
Fraunces Tavern, Broad and Pearl Streets, New York
The Frick Collection, 1 East 70th Street, New York 21
The Hispanic Society of America, Broadway and 156th Street, New
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Fifth Avenue and 82nd Street,
New York 28
Museum of the American Indian, Broadway at 155th Street, New
Museum of the City of New York, Fifth Avenue at 104th Street,
The Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 33rd Street, New York
The New York Botanic Garden Museum, 801 Madison Avenue,
The New York Historical Society, 170 Central Park West, New
New York Museum of Science and Industry, 30 Rockefeller Plaza,
New York 20
New York Zoological Park, Bronx Park, New York 60
The Pierpont Morgan Library, 29 East 36th Street, New York
The Roger Morris-Jumel Mansion, 160th Street and Edgecombe
Avenue, New York
Theodore Roosevelt House, 28 East 20th Street, New York
Van Cortlandt House Museum, Van Cortlandt Park, New York
Whitney Museum of American Art, 10 West 8th Street, New York
The Staten Island Institute of Arts and Sciences, Stuyvesant Place
and Wall Street, St. George, Staten Island
NEW YORK (state)
Wells College, Department of Fine Arts, Aurora-on-Cayuga
The Bear Mountain Trailside Museums and Nature Trails, Pali-
sades Interstate Park Commission, Bear Mountain
Albright Art Gallery, BuflFalo 9
BuflFalo Museum of Science, Humboldt Park, BuflFalo 11
Hudson River Museum at Yonkers, Trevor Park, Yonkers 3
The Akron Art Institute, 140 East Market Stieet, Akron 8
Taft Museum, Cincinnati Institute of Fine Arts, 316 Pike Street,
Cincinnati Art Museum, Eden Park, Cincinnati 6
Cincinnati Museum of Natural History, Central Parkway at Wal-
nut Street, Cincinnati 10
The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland 6
The Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 2717 Euclid Avenue,
Ohio State Museum ( Educational Service ) , Columbus
Johnson Humrickhouse Memorial Museum, Coshocton
Dayton Public Library Museum, 251 E. 2nd Street corner Patter-
son Boulevard, Dayton, 2
Art Institute, Massillon
The Dudley Peter Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College,
Butler Art Institute, 524 Wick Avenue, Youngstown 2
Art Institute, Zanesville
Portland Art Museum, West Park and Madison, Portland 5
Pennsylvania State Museum, Harrisburg
The Commercial Museum, 34th Street below Spruce, Philadelphia 4
The Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 3
Independence Hall, National Museum, Philadelphia
The University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 33rd and
Spruce Streets, Philadelphia 4
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13
The Reading Public Museum and Art Gallery, Reading
Everhart Museum of Natural History, Science and Art, Scranton
Rhode Island School of Design Museum, Providence 3
The Charleston Museum, Charleston 16
The Gibbs Art Gallery, Charleston
State Forestry Commission, Columbia
Witte Museum, Brackenridge Park, San Antonio t
Zion Museum, Zion National Park, Springdale
Historical Museum, Bennington
Old Stone House, Brown ington
Robert Hull Fleming Museum, University of Vermont, Burlington
White Schoolhouse, East Burke
Fairbanks Museum of Natural Science, St. Johnsbury
Westminster Institute, Westminster
Country Store Museum, Weston
Williams Collection of Japanese Art (Norman Williams Library),
Mount Vernon Ladies' Association, Mount Vernon
The Valentine Museum, 1015 East Clay Street, Richmond 19
Colonial Williamsburg, Inc., Williamsburg
Mount Rainier National Park, Longmire
Neville Public Museum, 129 S. JeflFerson Street, Green Bay
Janesville Art League, Woman's Club, 108 S. Jackson, Janesville
Kenosha Historical and Art Museum, Civic Center, Kenosha
Madison Art Association, 2011 Monroe Street, Madison
The State Historical Society of Wisconsin Museum, 816 State
Street, Madison 6
Wisconsin Union, University of Wisconsin, Madison
Milwaukee Art Institute, 772 N. Jefferson Street, Milwaukee 2
Milwaukee Public Museum, Milwaukee 3
Oshkosh Public Museum, 787 Algoma Boulevard, Oshkosh
The Charles A. Wustum Museum of Fine Arts, 2542 N. Western
PICTURES AND PRINTS
Art Education, Inc., 6 East 34th Street, New York 16, New York
Artext Prints, Inc., Westport, Connecticut
Colonial Art Company, 1336-1338 N. West First Street, Oklahoma
City 4, Oklahoma
F. E. Compton Company, 1000 North Dearborn Street, Chicago 10,
Creative Education Society, Mankato, Minnesota
Informative Classroom Picture Publishers, 40 Ionia Avenue, N.W.,
Grand Rapids 2, Michigan
Metropolitan Museum of Art, 82nd Street and Fifth Avenue, New
York 28, New York
National Audubon Society, 1000 Fifth Avenue, New York 28, N. Y.
National Geographic Society (School Service Division), 16 and
M Streets N.W., Washington 6, D.C.
The Perry Pictures Company, Maiden, Massachusetts
Rudolf Lesch Fine Arts, Inc., 225 Fifth Avenue, New York 10,
University Prints, 11 Boyd Street, Newton 58, Massachusetts
W. A. Wilde Company, 131 Clarendon Street, Boston 16, Mass.
Audio-Visual Aids Information Center, American Museum of
Natural History, 79th Street and Central Park West, New York 24,
Columbia Broadcasting Company, 485 Madison Avenue, New York
22, New York
Department of Visual Instruction, National Education Associa-
tion, 1201 Sixteenth Street, N. W., Washington, D.C.
Directory of Film Sources, Bell and Howell Company, 7100 Mc-
Cormick Road, Chicago 45, Illinois
Education Film Guide, H. W. Wilson Company, 950-972 Univer-
sity Avenue, New York 52, New York
Dale, E., Audio-Visual Methods in Teaching, 1946, Dry den Press,
New York, New York.
Dent, E. C , The Audio-Visual Handbook. 1946. Society for Visual
Education, Inc., Chicago, Illinois.
Hoban, C. F., Jr., Focus on Learning: Motion Pictures in the School.
1942. American Council on Education, Washington, D.C.
Hoban, C. F.; Hoban, C. F., Jr., Visualizing the Curriculum, 1937.
The Cordon Company, New York, New York.
Keith, Alice, How To Speak and Write for Radio, 1944. Harper
and Brothers, New York, New York.
Levenson, W. B., Teaching Through Radio. 1945. Farrar and Rine-
hart, New York, New York.
McKown, H. C; Roberts, A. B., Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction.
1940. McGraw-Hill Company, New York, New York.
Wittich, W. A.; Fowlkes, J. G., Audio-Visual Paths to Learning.
1946. Harper and Brothers, New York, New York.
Business Screen, 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, 11, Illinois.
Educational Screen, 64 East Lake Street, Chicago, Illinois.
Audio-Visual Guide, 172 Renner Avenue, Newark, New Jersey.
Film News, American Film Center, Inc.; 45 Rockefeller Plaza,
New York 20, New York.
Film World, 6060 Sunset Boulevard, Hollywood 28, California.
New Movies, National Board of Review of Motion Pictures, 70
Fifth Avenue, New York 11, New York.
See and Hear, E. M. Hale Company, Eau Claire, Wisconsin.
The terms included in this glossary are those used in the body of
this textbook. From time to time commercial dealers and the pro-
ducers of various audio-visual aids prepare new equipment, and
the reader is advised to consult the catalogs and magazines dealing
with such materials for additions and modifications in terminology.
ANAGLYPH. A special type of stereoscopic picture printed in
two colors ( red and blue ) . This picture must be viewed through
a stereoscopic viewer fitted with similar two-color filters in order
to obtain the three-dimensional effect which it is designed to give.
ARTIFACTS. Anything made or modified by human skill; arti-
ficially produced evidences of the life and culture of peoples.
AUDIO-VISUAL MATERIALS. All or any of those teaching
aids which may be brought to bear upon a lesson for the purpose
of vitalizing and enriching the learning experience for the child.
BALOPTICON. Trade name for the projector made by the
Bausch and Lomb Company for the projection of lantern slides and
opaque materials. ( See Opaque Projector. )
BEADED SCREEN. A white cloth screen, in the surface coat-
ing of which are millions of small bead-particles of crystal or glass.
Due to the combination of the reflective qualities of both the cloth
and the beads, this screen gives a semi-diffuse reflection of light
which is particularly effective for small projection rooms, where
the viewing angle is less than twenty-two degrees, and for color
projection. ( See also Opaque Screen, Screen, Sound Screen, Trans-
CHART. A diagram, outline or delineation, having some geo-
graphical or physical signification; a type of graph showing
changes; a tabular representation of factual data.
COLLECTION. A group of materials brought together in one
place. The materials may be related in type and subject or they
may be totally different.
COVER GLASS. The clear, protecting glass placed over the
picture drawn on etched or ground glass to make a lantern slide.
The cover glass serves to protect the slide picture.
DELINEASCOPE. Trade name for the projector manu-
factured by the Spencer Lens Company for the projection of
lantern slides and opaque materials. ( See Opaque Projector. )
DESIGN. The composition or arrangement of the various ele-
ments of a picture to form an harmonious pattern.
DIORAMA. The miniature, three-dimensional group consisting
of small modeled and colored figures and specimens, with acces-
sories, in an appropriate setting, and in most instances artificially
lighted. The scale and size of the group is variable; there is no
limitation as to subject matter, which may be realistic or imagina-
tive according to what the creator of the group wishes to portray.
EIGHT MILLIMETER FILM. The narrow-gauge, acetate-
base film now available for use in classroom and home. At present
it is not used to any great extent in schools, and is generally limited
in scope and use. (See also Sixteen Millimeter Film, Thirty-five
Millimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, Silent Film, Sound Film. )
ETCHED GLASS. Glass, one side or surface of which has been
etched or ground with an abrasive. Glass so treated is most satis-
factory for the making of lantern slides, as it takes crayon, pencil,
ink and paint markings. It is also known as Ground Glass.
EXHIBIT. A formal arrangement or presentation of objects,
models, specimens or collections of materials for purposes of dis-
play and study.
FIELD TRIP. A journey taken by a class or school group to some
point of interest outside the school building. The journey may be
for the purpose of supplementing school work, or it may be for
social purposes. ( See also Treasure Trip. )
FILMSLIDE. A slide made directly on color or black and white
35 mm. non-inflammable film. The film is processed by the manu-
facturer and returned as individual slides, either in cardboard
mounts or in glass mounts. ( See also Filmstrip, Slidefilm, Picturol,
FILMSTRIP. A sequence of still pictures made on a continuous
roll of thirty-five millimeter, non-inflammable film, in black and
white or color, containing sprocket holes and projected by means
of a special projector made for this type of film. Single frame film-
strips pass vertically through the projector; double frame film-
strips pass through horizontally. (See also Filmslide, Picturol,
FILMSTRIP PROJECTOR. A machine especially designed
for the projection of filmstrip material.
FLAT PICTURES. The usual term applied to all unprojected
prints, drawings, sketches and photographs.
GLASS SLIDE. Designation for a lantern slide, either colored
or black and white, made on glass, size 3/4 by 4 inches, to be used
in a standard size lantern slide projector. ( See Lantern Slide. )
GLOBE. A spherical body on whose surface is depicted a repre-
sentation of the geography of the earth or heaven. When the
representation is that of the earth's surface, the sphere is called
a terrestrial globe. When the representation is that of heavenly
bodies, the sphere is known as a celestial globe.
GRAPH. A diagrammatic representation of any sort of relation-
ship by means of a system of dot and line markings.
GROUND GLASS. See Etched Glass.
HABITAT GROUP. The life-size, life-scale, three-dimensional
group erected as a fixed part of the exhibits in a museum, for the
purpose of displaying materials and specimens against a painted
background which depicts, or is a composite approximating, an
actual locality, and with accessories so arranged as to form an
integral part of the group, usually artificially lighted. The true
habitat group is a blending of accurate background, accessories
and specimens so that it is a complete unit artistically, geographic-
ally, historically and biologically.
INTEGRATION. The "bringing together of parts into a whole";
used in connection with the various areas of the curriculum; as, the
integration of these areas through audio- visual aids.
KIT. A collection of audio-visual teaching materials in a box or
container. The materials included in this teaching kit are usually
put together for a specific purpose, and to illustrate or to amplify a
KODACHROME SLIDE. The trade name for the miniature
lantern slide made on Eastman Kodak Company color film. (See
Miniature Slide. )
LANTERN SLIDE. A picture made on glass, film or specially
prepared material, and placed between glass or in a cardboard
mount, and shown by means of a lantern slide projector. In the
United States all standard lantern slides are made in size 3/4 by 4
inches. The slides must be so made that they can be placed in the
carrier of the projector with the longer edges at the top and bot-
tom. (See also Kodachrome Slide, Miniature Slide, Photographic
Lantern Slide. )
MAP. A pictorial representation showing the extent and relative
position of the geographical features of the world and conveying
topographical or other information.
MAT. A thick paper or cardboard in or on which a picture is dis-
played. The term also refers to the surface of a picture or painting
purposely made with a dull finish.
MINIATURE SLIDE. The 2x2 inch slide made by photo-
graphing directly on black and white or color 35 mm. film. The
slide so made is mounted in a cardboard mount or between glass,
and is shown by means of a projector made to accommodate this
size slide. ( See also Two by Two Lantern Slides. )
MODEL. A representation or replica of an actual object.
MOTION PICTURE FILM. The film on which is photo-
graphed a series of pictures or images later projected in the form
known as motion pictures. There are three widths of film in use
today, the 35 mm., the 16 mm., and the 8 mm. (See also Sound
Film and Silent Film. )
MOTION PICTURE PROJECTOR. A machine especially
designed for the projection of motion picture film. A machine of
this type is made either for the projection of silent motion pictures
or for sound motion pictures. Only silent film may be projected on
a silent motion picture projector; a sound motion picture projector
will project sound films and also silent film when the sound track
switch is cut off.
MOUNT. The support, frame or background material upon which
or by whish anything is prepared and presented for use, exhibition
MULTI-SENSORY. That which appeals to two or more of
the senses; sight, hearing, touch, feeling and smell.
NOMOGRAM. A study chart, diagram or outline, to which name
or identification labels may be affixed. A type of training device.
OBJECT. In audio-visual instruction this term is used to mean
the real or actual thing as opposed to a representation, artificial
reproduction or model.
OPAQUE PROJECTOR. A projection machine especially de-
signed to enable one to project flat pictorial material in a manner
similar to the projection of lantern slides. (See also Balopticon,
OPAQUE SCREEN. The flat white-surface screen on which
may be projected black and white or color silent motion pictures
or lantern slides. The surface coating may be aluminum or the flat
white, so-called "matte" coating which produces an even distribu-
tion of light.
ORIENTATION. The process through which a person goes to
find his correct position in the group, community, or world.
PERSPECTIVE. The science which studies and explains how
to paint or draw a scene so that objects in it have their right shapes
and appearances. In the language of the artist, it is the making of
objects seem far away or near to.
PHOTOGRAPHIC LANTERN SLIDE. A lantern slide in
which the pictorial image is printed directly on the photographic
lantern slide plate from a negative, processed, and then colored if
desired. The slide so made is then covered with a cover glass, and
projected as a standard lantern slide. ( See also Lantern Slide, Mini-
ature Slide. )
PICTUROL. The trade name for the continuous roll of 35 mm.
film manufactured by the Society for Visual Education. ( See also
Filmslide, Filmstrip, Stillfilm.)
PLAY-BACK. A phonograph or turn-table device on which
records may be played.
PRINT. A positive picture or reproduction made from a negative.
Applied in audio-visual instruction to pictures, photographs, and
PROJECTOR. A mechanical device for the reproduction or
showing of a pictorial representation. (See also Motion Picture
Projector, Filmstrip Projector, Opaque Projector, Stereopticon. )
REAL I A. A general term appHed to authentic material of any
type. Applied in audio-visual instruction to that material which is
real and authentic.
RECORD. A cylinder or disc plate prepared in such a way as to
reproduce sounds when brought into contact with the needle of
a phonograph or other recording apparatus.
RECORDING. The term applied to the mechanical account, evi-
dence, record or report of a program of any kind.
REEL. A rotary spool or frame. The term for the unit of measure-
ment applied to motion picture film. The standard reel of 16 mm.
film for classroom use carries four hundred feet of film.
REPRESENTATIONAL. The term used in art to describe a
picture in which the artist has depicted people and objects as close
to reality as possible; photographic presentation rather than im-
SCREEN. The surface on which a slide, motion picture or other
pictorial image is projected and viewed. Screens for school use are
of two general types— the opaque and the translucent. (See also
Beaded Screen, Opaque Screen, Sound Screen, Translucent
SILENT FILM. Motion picture film on which a series of pic-
tures or images is photographed to be shown at a rate of sixteen
frames per second. This film can only be shown on a projector
geared to show silent film. (See also Motion Picture Film and
SIXTEEN MILLIMETER FILM. The non-inflammable,
acetate-base film which has become standard for classroom use.
This film has forty frames to the foot and four hundred feet to the
standard reel. 16 mm. silent film is projected at a rate of sixteen
frames per second; 16 mm. somid film is projected at a rate of
twenty-four frames per second. ( See also Eight Millimeter Film,
Thirty-five Millimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, Silent Film,
SLIDE CARRIER. That part of a lantern slide projector into
which a slide is inserted for projection.
SLIDE VIEWER. An instrument or holder for the viewing of
individual lantern slides. Usually a table-top instrument which
gives sufiicient magnification to permit close examination of the
SLIDEFILM. A designation frequently used for filmstrip. (See
also FilmsHde, Filmstrip, Picturol, Stillfihn.)
SOUND FILM. Motion picture film with a band or "sound
track" along one edge, produced either by sound waves recorded
as the film is produced or added later as a recorded comment or
musical accompaniment. This film is shown at a rate of twenty-
four frames per second on a projector especially geared to record
the sound track. (See also Eight Millimeter Film, Sixteen Milli-
meter Film, Thirty-five MiUimeter Film, Motion Picture Film,
Silent Fihn. )
SOUND SCREEN. A flat white opaque screen the surface of
which is so perforated as to provide a surface acoustically adapted
for use with sound motion pictures. (See also Beaded Screen,
Screen, Opaque Screen, Translucent Screen*. )
SOUND SLIDEFILM. A combination of filmstrip and disc
records. Voice, music, or other sound effects are reproduced on
disc records to accompany the filmstrip. Special projector units are
available which contain both the projector for the filmstrip, a turn-
table for the record, and a built-in speaker.
SOUND TRACK. The narrow band which forms one edge of
sound motion picture film. The varying amounts of light on this
band, when reaching the photoelectric cell of the projector, cause
variations in current which in turn produce sound.
SPECIMEN. A single item or sample representative of a class
or group of materials or things.
STANDARD LANTERN SLIDE. The 3)i by 4 inch slide de-
fined under "Lantern Slide." Known under this name, as these are
the standard dimensions for lantern slides in the United States.
STE RE OPTIC ON. A projection machine made especially for
the projection of lantern slides. The name for a lantern slide pro-
STEREOGRAPH. An oblong picture containing two slightly
dissimilar photographs of the same object, taken by a double
camera with lenses set at a distance equal to the normal distance
between the pupils of the eyes. The picture must be viewed through
a stereoscope to obtain the correct pictorial eflFect.
STEREOSCOPE. A special optical apparatus or instrument
used to view a stereograph.
STILLFILM. The trade name for the continuous roll of 35 mm.
film manufactured by Stillfilm, Inc. ( See also Filmslide, Filmstrip,
Picturol, Slidefilm. )
TEXTURE. The appeal to the sense of touch; used in connection
with pictures as a part of the language of the artist.
THIRTY-FIVE MILLIMETER FILM. The standard width
film used in motion picture theaters. It usually has a nitrate base
and, as flammable material, must be projected in a fireproof booth,
by a licensed operator. This film has sixteen frames to the foot and
1000 feet of film to a standard reel. 35 mm. sound film is projected
at a rate of ninety feet per minute and the silent film at a rate of
sixty feet per minute. (See also Eight Millimeter Film, Sixteen
Millimeter Film, Motion Picture Film, Silent Film, Sound Film. )
TRANSLUCENT SCREEN. The screen of tracing cloth,
etched glass or bleached muslin on which may be projected black
and white or color silent motion pictures or lantern slides. It is
particularly useful for "daylight projection" use in a partially dark-
ened room. When in use tliis screen is placed between the pro-
jector and the group viewing the picture.
TRANSCRIPTION. An artificial record or recording of a "live"
TWO BY TWO INCH LANTERN SLIDE. This slide is
made by photographing directly on black and white or color 35 mm.
film. This slide so made is mounted in a cardboard mount or
placed between glass, and is shown by means of a projector made
to accommodate this size slide. ( See also Miniature Slide. )
VECTOGRAPH. A special type of stereoscopic photograph,
printed in two colors or in black and white. The two pictures must
be printed on opposite sides of a polarizing film and viewed through
polaroid glasses to obtain the three-dimensional effect they are
designed to give.
VIEW-MASTER. A stereoscopic device whereby sets of stereo-
scopic miniature color photographs arranged on reels may be
viewed as three-dimensional pictures.
VIEW-MASTER PROJECTOR. A two-dimensional projector
especially designed for the use of interchangeable, seven-scene
View-master picture reels.